Richard F. Burton

The Book of The Thousand Nights And A Night

Khalifah the Fisherman of Baghdad

There was once in tides of yore and in ages and times long gone before, in the city of Baghdad, a fisherman, Khalífah hight, a pauper wight, who had never once been married in all his days. 186 It chanced one morning, that he took his net and went with it to the river, as was his wont, with the view of fishing before the others came. When he reached the bank, he girt himself and tucked up his skirts; then stepping into the water, he spread his net and cast it a first cast and a second but it brought up naught. He ceased not to throw it, till he had made ten casts, and still naught came up therein; wherefore his breast was straitened and his mind perplexed concerning his case and he said, “I crave pardon of God the Great, there is no god but He, the Living, the Eternal, and unto Him I repent. There is no Majesty and there is no Might save in Allah, the Glorious, the Great! Whatso He willeth is and whatso He nilleth is not! Upon Allah (to whom belong Honour and Glory!) dependeth daily bread! Whenas He giveth to His servant, none denieth him; and whenas He denieth a servant, none giveth to him.” And of the excess of his distress, he recited these two couplets,

“An Fate afflict thee, with grief manifest,
Prepare thy
patience and make broad thy breast;
For of His grace the Lord of all the worlds
Shall send to wait
upon unrest sweet Rest.”

Then he sat awhile pondering his case, and with his head bowed down recited also these couplets,

“Patience with sweet and with bitter Fate!
And weet that His
will He shall consummate:
Night oft upon woe as on abscess acts
And brings it up to the bursting state:
And Chance and Change shall pass o’er the youth
And fleet from
his thoughts and no more shall bait.”

Then he said in his mind, “I will make this one more cast, trusting in Allah, so haply He may not disappoint my hope;” and he rose and casting into the river the net as far as his arm availed, gathered the cords in his hands and waited a full hour, after which he pulled at it and, finding it heavy,—And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased to say her permitted say.

186 This is so rare, even amongst the poorest classes in the East, that it is mentioned with some emphasis.

When it was the Eight Hundred and Thirty-second Night,

She continued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when Khalifah the Fisherman had cast his net sundry times into the stream, yet had it brought up naught, he pondered his case and improvised the verses afore quoted. Then he said in his mind, “I will make this one more cast, trusting in Allah who haply will not disappoint my hope.” So he rose and threw the net and waited a full hour, after which time he pulled at it and, finding it heavy, handled it gently and drew it in, little by little, till he got it ashore, when lo and behold! he saw in it a one-eyed, lame-legged ape. Seeing this quoth Khalifah, “There is no Majesty and there is no Might save in Allah! verily, we are Allah’s and to Him we are returning! What meaneth this heart- breaking, miserable ill-luck and hapless fortune? What is come to me this blessed day? But all this is of the destinies of Almighty Allah!” Then he took the ape and tied him with a cord to a tree which grew on the river-bank, and grasping a whip he had with him, raised his arm in the air, thinking to bring down the scourge upon the quarry, when Allah made the ape speak with a fluent tongue, saying, “O Khalifah, hold thy hand and beat me not, but leave me bounden to this tree and go down to the river and cast thy net, confiding in Allah; for He will give thee thy daily bread.” Hearing this Khalifah went down to the river and casting his net, let the cords run out. Then he pulled it in and found it heavier than before; so he ceased not to tug at it, till he brought it to land, when, behold, there was another ape in it, with front teeth wide apart, 187 Kohl-darkened eyes and hands stained with Henna-dyes; and he was laughing and wore a tattered waistcloth about his middle. Quoth Khalifah, “Praised be Allah who hath changed the fish of the river into apes!” 188 then, going up to the first ape, who was still tied to the tree, he said to him, “See, O unlucky, how fulsome was the counsel thou gavest me! None but thou made me light on this second ape: and for that thou gavest me good-morrow with thy one eye and thy lameness, 189 I am become distressed and weary, without dirham or dinar.” So saying, he hent in hand a stick 190 and flourishing it thrice in the air, was about to come down with it upon the lame ape, when the creature cried out for mercy and said to him, “I conjure thee, by Allah, spare me for the sake of this my fellow and seek of him thy need; for he will guide thee to thy desire!” So he held his hand from him and throwing down the stick, went up to and stood by the second ape, who said to him, “O Khalifah, this my speech 191 will profit thee naught, except thou hearken to what I say to thee; but, an thou do my bidding and cross me not, I will be the cause of thine enrichment.” Asked Khalifah, “And what hast thou to say to me that I may obey there therein?” The Ape answered, “Leave me bound on the bank and hie thee down to the river; then cast thy net a third time, and after I will tell thee what to do.” So he took his net and going down to the river, cast it once more and waited awhile. Then he drew it in and finding it heavy, laboured at it and ceased not his travail till he got it ashore, when he found in it yet another ape; but this one was red, with a blue waistcloth about his middle; his hands and feet were stained with Henna and his eyes blackened with Kohl. When Khalifah saw this, he exclaimed, “Glory to God the Great! Extolled be the perfection of the Lord of Dominion! Verily, this is a blessed day from first to last: its ascendant was fortunate in the countenance of the first ape, and the scroll 192 is known by its superscription! Verily, to-day is a day of apes: there is not a single fish left in the river, and we are come out to-day but to catch monkeys!” Then he turned to the third ape and said, “And what thing art thou also, O unlucky?” Quoth the ape, “Dost thou not know me, O Khalifah!”; and quoth he, “Not I!” The ape cried, “I am the ape of Abu al-Sa’ádát 193 the Jew, the shroff.” Asked Khalifah, “And what dost thou for him?”; and the ape answered, “I give him good-morrow at the first of the day, and he gaineth five ducats; and again at the end of the day, I give him good-even and he gaineth other five ducats.” Whereupon Khalifah turned to the first ape and said to him, “See, O unlucky, what fine apes other folks have! As for thee, thou givest me good-morrow with thy one eye and thy lameness and thy ill-omened phiz and I become poor and bankrupt and hungry!” So saying, he took the cattle-stick and flourishing it thrice in the air, was about to come down with it on the first ape, when Abu al-Sa’adat’s ape said to him, “Let him be, O Khalifah, hold thy hand and come hither to me, that I may tell thee what to do.” So Khalifah threw down the stick and walking up to him cried, “And what hast thou to say to me, O monarch of all monkeys?” Replied the ape, “Leave me and the other two apes here, and take thy net and cast it into the river; and whatever cometh up, bring it to me, and I will tell thee what shall gladden thee.”—And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased saying her permitted say.

187 A beauty among the Egyptians, not the Arabs.

188 True Fellah—“chaff.”

189 Alluding to the well-known superstition, which has often appeared in The Nights, that the first object seen in the morning, such as a crow, a cripple, or a cyclops determines the fortunes of the day. Notices in Eastern literature are as old as the days of the Hitopadesa; and there is a something instinctive in the idea to a race of early risers. At an hour when the senses are most impressionable the aspect of unpleasant spectacles ahs double effect.

190 Arab. “Masúkah,” the stick used for driving cattle, bâton gourdin (Dozy). Lane applies the word to a wooden plank used for levelling the ground.

191 i.e. the words I am about to speak to thee.

192 Arab. “Sahifah,” which may mean “page” (Lane) or “book” (Payne).

193 Pronounce, “Abussa’ádát” = Father of Prosperities: Lane imagines that it came from the Jew’s daughter being called “Sa’adat.” But the latter is the Jew’s wife (Night dcccxxxiii) and the word in the text is plural.

When it was the Eight Hundred and Thirty-third Night

She pursued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that the ape of Abu al-Sa’adat said to Khalifah, “Take thy net and cast it into the river; and whatever cometh up, bring it to me, and I will tell thee what shall gladden thee.” He replied, “I hear and obey,” and took the net and gathered it on his shoulder, reciting these couplets,

“When straitened is my breast I will of my Creator pray,
may and can the heaviest weight lighten in easiest way;
For ere man’s glance can turn or close his eye by God His grace
Waxeth the broken whole and yieldeth jail its prison-prey.
Therefore with Allah one and all of thy concerns commit
Whose grace and favour men of wit shall nevermore gainsay.”

And also these twain,

“Thou art the cause that castest men in ban and bane;
e’en so and sorrow’s cause Thou canst assain:
Make me not covet aught that lies beyond my reach;
How many a greedy wight his wish hath failed to gain!”

Now when Khalifah had made an end of his verse, he went down to the river and casting his net, waited awhile; after which he drew it up and found therein a fine young fish, 194 with a big head, a tail like a ladle and eyes like two gold pieces. When Khalifah saw this fish, he rejoiced, for he had never in his life caught its like, so he took it, marvelling, and carried it to the ape of Abu al-Sa’adat the Jew, as ‘twere he had gotten possession of the universal world. Quoth the ape, “O Khalifah, what wilt thou do with his and with thine ape?”; and quoth the Fisherman, “I will tell thee, O monarch of monkeys all I am about to do. Know then that first, I will cast about to make away with yonder accursed, my ape, and take thee in his stead and give thee every day to eat of whatso thou wilt.” Rejoined the ape, “Since thou hast made choice of me, I will tell thee how thou shalt do wherein, if it please Allah Almighty, shall be the mending of thy fortune. Lend thy mind, then, to what I say to thee and ‘tis this!: Take another cord and tie me also to a tree, where leave me and go to the midst of The Dyke 195 and cast thy net into the Tigris. 196 Then after waiting awhile, draw it up and thou shalt find therein a fish, than which thou never sawest a finer in thy whole life. Bring it to me and I will tell thee how thou shalt do after this.” So Khalifah rose forthright and casting his net into the Tigris, drew up a great cat-fish 197 the bigness of a lamb; never had he set eyes on its like, for it was larger than the first fish. He carried it to the ape, who said to him, “Gather thee some green grass and set half of it in a basket; lay the fish therein and cover it with the other moiety. Then, leaving us here tied, shoulder the basket and betake thee to Baghdad. If any bespeak thee or question thee by the way, answer him not, but fare on till thou comest to the market-street of the money-changers, at the upper end of whereof thou wilt find the shop of Master 198 Abu al- Sa’adat the Jew, Shaykh of the shroffs, and wilt see him sitting on a mattress, with a cushion behind him and two coffers, one for gold and one for silver, before him, while around him stand his Mamelukes and negro-slaves and servant-lads. Go up to him and set the basket before him, saying ‘O Abu al-Sa’adat, verily I went out to-day to fish and cast my net in thy name and Allah Almighty sent me this fish.’ He will ask, ‘Hast thou shown it to any but me?;’ and do thou answer, “No, by Allah!’ then will he take it of thee and give thee a dinar. Give it back to him and he will give thee two dinars; but do thou return them also and so do with everything he may offer thee; and take naught from him, though he give thee the fish’s weight in gold. Then will he say to thee, ‘Tell me what thou wouldst have,’ and do thou reply, “By Allah, I will not sell the fish save for two words!’ He will ask, ‘What are they?’ and do thou answer, ‘Stand up and say, ‘Bear witness, O ye who are present in the market, that I give Khalifah the fisherman my ape in exchange for his ape, and that I barter for his lot my lot and luck for his luck.’ This is the price of the fish, and I have no need of gold.’ If he do this, I will every day give thee good-morrow and good-even, and every day thou shalt gain ten dinars of good gold; whilst this one-eyed, lame-legged ape shall daily give the Jew good-morrow, and Allah shall afflict him every day with an avanie 199 which he must needs pay, nor will he cease to be thus afflicted till he is reduced to beggary and hath naught. Hearken then to my words; so shalt thou prosper and be guided aright.” Quoth Khalifah, “I accept thy counsel, O monarch of all the monkeys! But, as for this unlucky, may Allah never bless him! I know not what to do with him.” Quoth the ape, “Let him go 200 into the water, and let me go also.” “I hear and obey,” answered Khalifah and unbound the three apes, and they went down into the river. Then he took up the cat-fish 201 which he washed then laid it in the basket upon some green grass, and covered it with other; and lastly shouldering his load, set out chanting the following Mawwál, 202

“Thy case commit to a Heavenly Lord and thou shalt safety see;
Act kindly through thy worldly life and live repentance-
Mate not with folk suspected, lest eke thou shouldst suspected be

And from reviling keep thy tongue lest men revile at thee!”

—And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased saying her permitted say.

194 Arab. “Furkh samak” lit. a fish-chick, an Egyptian vulgarism.

195 Arab. “Al–Rasif”; usually a river-quay, levée, an embankment. Here it refers to the great dyke which distributed the Tigris-water.

196 Arab. “Dajlah,” see vol. i, p 180. It is evidently the origin of the biblical “Hiddekel” “Hid” = fierceness, swiftness.

197 Arab. “Bayáz” a kind of Silurus (S. Bajad, Forsk.) which Sonnini calls Bayatto, Saksatt and Hébedé; also Bogar (Bakar, an ox). The skin is lubricous, the flesh is soft and insipid and the fish often grows to the size of a man. Captain Speke and I found huge specimens in the Tangany ika Lake.

198 Arab. “Mu’allim,” vulg. “M’allim,” prop.= teacher, master esp. of a trade, a craft. In Egypt and Syria it is a civil address to a Jew or a Christian, as Hájj is to a Moslem.

199 Arab. “Gharámah,” an exaction, usually on the part of government like a corvée etc. The Europeo–Egyptian term is Avania (Ital.) or Avanie (French).

200 Arab. “Sayyib-hu” an Egyptian vulgarism found also in Syria. Hence Sáibah, a woman who lets herself go (a-whoring) etc. It is syn. with “Dashar,” which Dozy believes to be a softening of Jashar; and Jashsh became Dashsh.

201 The Silurus is generally so called in English on account of its feeler-acting mustachios.

202 See Night dcccvii, vol. viii. p. 94.

When it was the Eight Hundred and Thirty-fourth Night,

She resumed, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that Khalifah the fisherman, after ending his song, set out with the basket upon his shoulder and ceased not faring till he entered the city of Baghdad. And as he threaded the streets the folk knew him and cried out to him, saying, “What hast thou there, O Khalifah?” but he paid no heed to them and passed on till he came to the market-street of the money-changers and fared between the shops, as the ape had charged him, till he found the Jew seated at the upper end, with his servants in attendance upon him, as he were a King of the Kings of Khorason. He knew him at first sight; so he went up to him and stood before him, whereupon Abu al-Sa’adat raised his eyes and recognising him, said, “Welcome, O Khalifah! What wantest thou and what is thy need? If any have missaid thee or spited thee, tell me and I will go with thee to the Chief of Police, who shall do thee justice on him.” Replied Khalifah, “Nay, as thy head liveth, O chief of the Jews, none hath missaid me. But I went forth this morning to the river and, casting my net into the Tigris on thy luck, brought up this fish.” Therewith he opened the basket and threw the fish before the Jew who admired it and said, “By the Pentateuch and the Ten Commandments, 203 I dreamt last night that the Virgin came to me and said, ‘Know, O Abu al-Sa’adat, that I have sent thee a pretty present!’ and doubtless ‘tis this fish.” Then he turned to Khalifah and said to him, “By thy faith, hath any seen it but I?” Khalifah replied, “No by Allah and by Abu Bakr the Viridical, 204 none hath seen it save thou, O chief of the Jews!” Whereupon the Jew turned to one of his lads and said to him, “Come, carry this fish to my house and bid Sa’ádah 205 dress it and fry and broil it, against I make an end of my business and hie me home.” And Khalifah said, “Go, O my lad; let the master’s wife fry some of it and broil the rest.” Answered the boy, “I hear and I obey, O my lord” and, taking the fish, went away with it to the house. Then the Jew put out his hand and gave Khalifah the fisherman a dinar, saying, “Take this for thyself, O Khalifah, and spend it on thy family.” When Khalifah saw the dinar on his palm, he took it, saying, “Laud to the Lord of Dominion!” as if he had never seen aught of gold in his life; and went somewhat away; but, before he had gone far, he was minded of the ape’s charge and turning back threw down the ducat, saying, “Take thy gold and give folk back their fish! Dost thou make a laughing stock of folk? The Jew hearing this thought he was jesting and offered him two dinars upon the other, but Khalifah said, “Give me the fish and no nonsense. How knewest thou I would sell it at this price?” Whereupon the Jew gave him two more dinars and said, “Take these five ducats for thy fish and leave greed.” So Khalifah hent the five dinars in hand and went away, rejoicing, and gazing and marvelling at the gold and saying, “Glory be to God! There is not with the Caliph of Baghdad what is with me this day!” Then he ceased not faring on till he came to the end of the market-street, when he remembered the words of the ape and his charge, and returning to the Jew, threw him back the gold. Quoth he, “What aileth thee, O Khalifah? Dost thou want silver in exchange for gold?” Khalifah replied, “I want nor dirhams nor dinars. I only want thee to give me back folk’s fish.” With this the Jew waxed wroth and shouted out at him, saying, “O fisherman, thou bringest me a fish not worth a sequin and I give thee five for it; yet art thou not content! Art thou Jinn-mad? Tell me for how much thou wilt sell it.” Answered Khalifah, “I will not sell it for silver nor for gold, only for two sayings 206 thou shalt say me.” When the Jew heard speak of the “Two Sayings,” his eyes sank into his head, he breathed hard and ground his teeth for rage and said to him, “O nail-paring of the Moslems, wilt thou have me throw off my faith for the sake of thy fish, and wilt thou debauch me from my religion and stultify my belief and my conviction which I inherited of old from my forbears?” Then he cried out to the servants who were in waiting and said, “Out on you! Bash me this unlucky rogue’s neck and bastinado him soundly!” So they came down upon him with blows and ceased not beating him till he fell beneath the shop, and the Jew said to them, “Leave him and let him rise.” Whereupon Khalifah jumped up, as if naught ailed him, and the Jew said to him, “Tell me what price thou asketh for this fish and I will give it thee: for thou hast gotten but scant good of us this day.” Answered the Fisherman, “Have no fear for me, O master, because of the beating; for I can eat ten donkeys’ rations of stick.” The Jew laughed at his words and said, “Allah upon thee, tell me what thou wilt have and by the right of my Faith, I will give it thee!” The Fisherman replied, “Naught from thee will remunerate me for this fish save the two words whereof I spake.” And the Jew said, “Meseemeth thou wouldst have me become a Moslem?” 207 Khalifah rejoined, “By Allah, O Jew, an thou islamise ‘twill nor advantage the Moslems nor damage the Jews; and in like manner, an thou hold to thy misbelief ‘twill nor damage the Moslems nor advantage the Jews. But what I desire of thee is that thou rise to thy feet and say, ‘Bear witness against me, O people of the market, that I barter my ape for the ape of Khalifah the Fisherman and my lot in the world for his lot and my luck for his luck.’” Quoth the Jew, “If this be all thou desirest ‘twill sit lightly upon me.” —And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased saying her permitted say.

203 This extraordinary confusion of two distinct religious mythologies cannot be the result of ignorance. Educated Moslems know at least as much as Christians do, on these subjects, but the Rawi or story-teller speaks to the “Gallery.” In fact it becomes a mere ‘chaff’ and The Nights give some neat specimens of our modern linguistic.

204 See vol. ii. 197. “Al–Siddíkah” (fem.) is a title of Ayishah, who, however, does not appear to have deserved it.

205 The Jew’s wife.

206 Here is a double entendre. The fisherman meant a word or two. The Jew understood the Shibboleth of the Moslem Creed, popularly known as the “Two Words,”—I testify that there is no Ilah (god) but Allah (the God) and I testify that Mohammed is the Messenger of Allah. Pronouncing this formula would make the Jew a Moslem. Some writers are surprised to see a Jew ordering a Moslem to be flogged; but the former was rich and the latter was poor. Even during the worst days of Jewish persecutions their money-bags were heavy enough to lighten the greater part, if not the whole of their disabilities. And the Moslem saying is, “The Jew is never your (Moslem or Christian) equal: he must be either above you or below you.” This is high, because unintentional praise of the (self-) Chosen People.

207 He understands the “two words” (Kalmatáni) the Moslem’s double profession of belief; and Khalifah’s reply embodies the popular idea that the number of Moslems (who will be saved) is preordained and that no art of man can add to it or take from it.

When it was the Eight Hundred and Thirty-fifth Night,

She resumed, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that the Jew said to Khalifah the Fisherman, “If this be all thou desirest, ‘twill sit lightly upon me.” So he rose without stay or delay and standing on his feet, repeated the required words; after which he turned to the Fisherman and asked him, “Hast thou aught else to ask of me?” “No,” answered he, and the Jew said, “Go in peace!” Hearing this Khalifah sprung to his feet forthright; took up his basket and net and returned straight to the Tigris, where he threw his net and pulled it in. He found it heavy and brought it not ashore but with travail, when he found it full of fish of all kinds. Presently, up came a woman with a dish, who gave me a dinar, and he gave her fish for it; and after her an eunuch, who also bought a dinar’s worth of fish, and so forth till he had sold ten dinars’ worth. And he continued to sell ten dinars’ worth of fish daily for ten days, till he had gotten an hundred dinars. Now Khalifah the Fisherman had quarters in the Passage of the Merchants, 208 and, as he lay one night in his lodging much bemused with Hashish, he said to himself, “O Khalifah, the folk all know thee for a poor fisherman, and now thou hast gotten an hundred golden dinars. Needs must the Commander of the Faithful, Harun al-Rashid, hear of this from some one, and haply he will be wanting money and will send for thee and say to thee, ‘I need a sum of money and it hath reached me that thou hast an hundred dinars: so do thou lend them to me those same.’ I shall answer, ‘O Commander of the Faithful, I am a poor man, and whoso told thee that I had an hundred dinars lied against me; for I have naught of this.’ Thereupon he will commit me to the Chief of Police, saying, “Strip him of his clothes and torment him with the bastinado till he confess and give up the hundred dinars in his possession. Wherefore, meseemeth to provide against this predicament, the best thing I can do, is to rise forthright and bash myself with the whip, so to use myself to beating.” And his Hashish 209 said to him, “Rise, doff thy dress.” So he stood up and putting off his clothes, took a whip he had by him and set handy a leathern pillow; then he fell to lashing himself, laying every other blow upon the pillow and roaring out the while, “Alas! Alas! By Allah, ‘tis a false saying, O my lord, and they have lied against me; for I am a poor fisherman and have naught of the goods of the world!” The noise of the whip falling on the pillow and on his person resounded in the still of night and the folk heard it, and amongst others the merchants, and they said, “Whatever can ail the poor fellow, that he crieth and we hear the noise of blows falling on him?” ‘Twould seem robbers have broken in upon him and are tormenting him.” Presently they all came forth of their lodgings, at the noise of the blows and the crying, and repaired to Khalifah’s room, but they found the door locked and said one to other, “Belike the robbers have come in upon him from the back of the adjoining saloon. It behoveth us to climb over by the roofs.” So they clomb over the roofs and coming down through the sky-light, 210 saw him naked and flogging himself and asked him, “What aileth thee, O Khalifah?” He answered, “Know, O folk, that I have gained some dinars and fear lest my case be carried up to the Prince of True Believers, Harun al-Rashid, and he send for me and demand of me those same gold pieces; where upon I should deny, and I fear that, if I deny, he will torture me, so I am torturing myself, by way of accustoming me to what may come.” The merchants laughed at him and said, “Leave this fooling, may Allah not bless thee and the dinars thou hast gotten! Verily thou hast disturbed us this night and hast troubled our hearts.” So Khalifah left flogging himself and slept till the morning, when he rose and would have gone about his business, but bethought him of his hundred dinars and said in his mind, “An I leave them at home, thieves will steal them, and if I put them in a belt 211 about my waist, peradventure some one will see me and lay in wait for me till he come upon me in some lonely place and slay me and take the money: but I have a device that should serve me well, right well.” So he jumped up forthright and made him a pocket in the collar of his gaberdine and tying the hundred dinars up in a purse, laid them in the collar-pocket. Then he took his net and basket and staff and went down to the Tigris, — And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased to say her permitted say.

208 Arab. “Mamarr al-Tujjár” (passing-place of the traders) which Lane renders “A chamber within the place through which the traders passed.” At the end of the tale (Night dccxlv.) we find him living in a Khan and the Bresl. Edit. (see my terminal note) makes him dwell in a magazine (i.e. ground-floor store-room) of a ruined Khan.

209 The text is somewhat too concise and the meaning is that the fumes of the Hashish he had eaten (“his mind under the influence of hasheesh,” says Lane) suggested to him, etc.

210 Arab. “Mamrak” either a simple aperture in ceiling or roof for light and air or a more complicated affair of lattice-work and plaster; it is often octagonal and crowned with a little dome. Lane calls it “Memrak,” after the debased Cairene pronunciation, and shows its base in his sketch of a Ka’áh (M.E., Introduction).

211 Arab. “Kamar.” This is a practice especially amongst pilgrims. In Hindostan the girdle, usually a waist-shawl, is called Kammar-band our old “Cummerbund.” Easterns are too sensible not to protect the pit of the stomach, that great ganglionic centre, against sun, rain and wind, and now our soldiers in India wear flannel-belts on the march.

When it was the Eight Hundred and Thirty-sixth Night

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that Khalifah the Fisherman, having set his hundred dinars in the collar-pocket took basket, staff and net and went down to the Tigris, where he made a cast but brought up naught. So he removed from that place to another and threw again, but once more the net came up empty; and he went on removing from place to place till he had gone half a day’s journey from the city, ever casting the net which kept bringing up naught. So he said to himself, “By Allah, I will throw my net a-stream but his once more, whether ill come of it or weal!” 212 Then he hurled the net with all his force, of the excess and his wrath and the purse with the hundred dinars flew out of his collar-pocket and, lighting in mid-stream, was carried away by the strong current; whereupon he threw down the net and plunged into the water after the purse. He dived for it nigh a hundred times, till his strength was exhausted and he came up for sheer fatigue without chancing on it. When he despaired of finding the purse, he returned to the shore, where he was nothing but staff, net and basket and sought for his clothes, but could light on no trace of them: so he said in himself, “O vilest of those wherefor was made the byword, ‘The pilgrimage is not perfected save by copulation with the camel!” 213 Then he wrapped the net about him and taking staff in one hand and basket in other, went trotting about like a camel in rut, running right and left and backwards and forwards, dishevelled and dusty, as he were a rebel Marid let loose from Solomon’s prison. 214 So far for what concerns the Fisherman Khalifah; but as regards the Caliph Harun al-Rashid, he had a friend, a jeweller called Ibn al-Kirnás, 215 and all the traders, brokers and middle-men knew him for the Caliph’s merchant; wherefore there was naught sold in Baghdad, by way of rarities and things of price or Mamelukes or handmaidens, but was first shown to him. As he sat one day in his shop, behold, there came up to him the Shaykh of the brokers, with a slave-girl, whose like seers never saw, for she was of passing beauty and loveliness, symmetry and perfect grace, and among her gifts was that she knew all arts and sciences and could make verses and play upon all manner musical instruments. So Ibn al-Kirnas bought her for five thousand golden dinars and clothed her with other thousand; after which he carried her to the Prince of True Believers, with whom she lay the night and who made trial of her in every kind of knowledge and accomplishment and found her versed in all sorts of arts and sciences, having no equal in her time. Her name was Kút al-Kulúb 216 and she was even as saith the poet,

“I fix my glance on her, whene’er she wends;
And non-acceptance
of my glance breeds pain:
She favours graceful-necked gazelle at gaze;
And ‘Graceful as
gazelle’ to say we’re fain.”

And where is this 217 beside the saying of another?

“Give me brunettes; the Syrian spears, so limber and so straight,

Tell of the slender dusky maids, so lithe and proud of gait.
Languid of eyelids, with a down like silk upon her cheek, Within
her wasting lover’s heart she queens it still in state.”

On the morrow the Caliph sent for Ibn al-Kirnas the Jeweller, and bade him receive ten thousand dinars as to her price. And his heart was taken up with the slave-girl Kut al-Kulub and he forsook the Lady Zubaydah bint al-Kasim, for all she was the daughter of his father’s brother 218 and he abandoned all his favorite concubines and abode a whole month without stirring from Kut al-Kulub’s side save to go to the Friday prayers and return to her in all haste. This was grievous to the Lords of the Realm and they complained thereof to the Wazir Ja’afar the Barmecide, who bore with the Commander of the Faithful and waited till the next Friday, when he entered the cathedral-mosque and, foregathering with the Caliph, related to him all that occurred to him of extra-ordinary stories anent seld-seen love and lovers, with intent to draw out what was in his mind. Quoth the Caliph, “By Allah, O Ja’afar, this is not of my choice; but my heart is caught in the snare of love and wot I not what is to be done!” The Wazir Ja’afar replied, “O Commander of the Faithful, thou knowest how this girl Kut al-Kulub is become at thy disposal and of the number of thy servants, and that which hand possesseth soul coveteth not. Moreover, I will tell thee another thing which is that the highest boast of Kings and Princes is in hunting and the pursuit of sport and victory; and if thou apply thyself to this, perchance it will divert thee from her, and it may be thou wilt forget her.” Rejoined the Caliph, “Thou sayest well, O Ja’afar; come let us go a-hunting forthright, without stay or delay.” So soon as Friday prayers were prayed, they left the mosque and at once mounting their she-mules rode forth to the chase. —And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased saying her permitted say.

212 Arab. “Fa-immá ‘alayhá wa-immá bihá,” i.e. whether (luck go) against it or (luck go) with it.

213 “O vilest of sinners!” alludes to the thief. “A general plunge into worldly pursuits and pleasures announced the end of the pilgrimage-ceremonies. All the devotees were now “whitewashed”—the book of their sins was a tabula rasa: too many of them lost no time in making a new departure down South and in opening a fresh account” (Pilgrimage iii. 365). I have noticed that my servant at Jeddah would carry a bottle of Raki, uncovered by a napkin, through the main streets.

214 The copper cucurbites in which Solomon imprisoned the rebellious Jinns, often alluded to in The Nights.

215 i.e. Son of the Chase: it is prob. a corruption of the Persian Kurnas, a pimp, a cuckold, and introduced by way of chaff, intelligible only to a select few “fast” men.

216 For the name see vol. ii.61, in the Tale of Ghánim bin ‘Ayyúb where the Caliph’s concubine is also drugged by the Lady Aubaydah.

217 We should say, “What is this?” etc. The lines have occurred before so I quote Mr. Payne.

218 Zubaydah, I have said, was the daughter of Ja’afar, son of the Caliph al-Mansur, second Abbaside. The story-teller persistently calls her daughter of Al-Kásim for some reason of his own; and this he will repeat in Night dcccxxxix.

When it was the Eight Hundred and Thirty-seventh Night,

She continued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when the Caliph Harun al-Rashid and the Wazir Ja’afar would go forth a-hunting and a-chasing, they mounted two she-mules and fared on into the open country, occupied with talk, and their attendants outwent them. Presently the heat became overhot and Al–Rashid said to his Wazir, “O Ja’afar, I am sore athirst.” Then he looked around and espying a figure in the distance on a high mound, asked Ja’afar, “Seest thou what I see?” Answered the Wazir, “Yes, O Commander of the Faithful; I see a dim figure on a high mound; belike he is the keeper of a garden or of a cucumber-plot, and in whatso wise water will not be lacking in his neighborhood;” presently adding, “I will go to him and fetch thee some.” But Al–Rashid said, “My mule is swifter than thy mule; so do thou abide here, on account of the troops, whilst I go myself to him and get of this person 219 drink and return.” So saying, he urged his she-mule, which started off like racing wind or railing-water and, in the twinkling of an eye, made the mound, where he found the figure he had seen to be none other than Khalifah the Fisherman, naked and wrapped in the net; and indeed he was horrible to behold, as to and fro he rolled with eyes for very redness like cresset-gleam and dusty hair in dishevelled trim, as he were an Ifrit or a lion grim. Al–Rashid saluted him and he returned his salutation; but he was wroth and fires might have been lit at his breath. Quoth the Caliph, “O man, hast thou any water?”; and quoth Khalifah, “Ho thou, art thou blind, or Jinn-mad? Get thee to the river Tigris, for ‘tis behind this mound.” So Al–Rashid went around the mound and going down to the river, drank and watered his mule: then without a moment’s delay he returned to Khalifah and said to him, “What aileth thee, O man, to stand here, and what is thy calling?” The Fisherman cried, “This is a stranger and sillier question than that about the water! Seest thou not the gear of my craft on my shoulder?” Said the Caliph, “Belike thou art a fisherman?”; and he replied, “Yes.” Asked Al–Rashid, “Where is thy gaberdine, 220 and where are thy waistcloth and girdle and where be the rest of thy raiment?” Now these were the very things which had been taken from Khalifah, like for like; so, when he heard the Caliph name them, he got into his head that it was he who had stolen his clothes from the river-bank and coming down from the top of the mound, swiftlier than the blinding leven, laid hold of the mule’s bridle, saying, “Harkye, man, bring me back my things and leave jesting and joking.” Al–Rashid replied, “By Allah, I have not seen thy clothes nor know aught of them!” Now the Caliph had large cheeks and a small mouth; 221 so Khalifah said to him, “Belike, thou art by trade a singer or a piper on pipes? But bring me back my clothes fairly and without more ado, or I will bash thee with this my staff till thou bepiss thyself and befoul they clothes.” When Al–Rashid saw the staff in the Fisherman’s hand and that he had the vantage of him, he said to himself, “By Allah, I cannot brook from this mad beggar half a blow of that staff!” Now he had on a satin gown; so he pulled it off and gave it to Khalifah, saying, “O man, take this in place of thy clothes.” The Fisherman took it and turned it about and said, “My clothes are worth ten of this painted ‘Abá-cloak;” and rejoined the Caliph, “Put it on till I bring thee thy gear.” So Khalifah donned the gown, but finding it too long for him, took a knife he had with him, tied to the handle of his basket, 222 and cut off nigh a third of the skirt, so that it fell only beneath his knees. Then he turned to Al–Rashid and said to him, “Allah upon thee, O piper, tell me what wage thou gettest every month from thy master, for thy craft of piping.” Replied the Caliph, “My wage is ten dinars a month,” and Khalifah continued, “By Allah, my poor fellow, thou makest me sorry for thee! Why, I make thy ten dinars every day! hast thou a mind to take service with me and I will teach thee the art of fishing and share my gain with thee? So shalt thou make five dinars a day and be my slavey and I will protect thee against thy master with this staff.” Quoth Al–Rashid, “I will well”; and quoth Khalifah, “Then get off thy she-ass and tie her up, so she may serve us to carry the fish hereafter, and come hither, that I may teach thee to fish forthright.” So Al–Rashid alighted and hobbling his mule, tucked his skirts into his girdle, and Khalifah said to him, “O piper, lay hold of the net thus and put it over thy forearm thus and cast it into the Tigris thus.” Accordingly, the Caliph took heart of grace and, doing as the fisherman showed him, threw the net and pulled at it, but could not draw it up. So Khalifah came to his aid and tugged at it with him; but the two together could not hale it up: where upon said the fisherman, “O piper of ill-omen, for the first time I took thy gown in place of my clothes; but this second time I will have thine ass and will beat thee to boot, till thou bepiss and beskite thyself! An I find my net torn.” Quoth Al–Rashid, “Let the twain of us pull at once.” So they both pulled together and succeeded with difficulty in hauling that net ashore, when they found it full of fish of all kinds and colours;—And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased to say her permitted say.

219 Arab. “Shakhs,” a word which has travelled as far as Hindostan.

220 Arab. “Shamlah” described in dictionaries, as a cloak covering the whole body. For Hizám (girdle) the Bresl. Edit. reads “Hirám” vulg. “Ehrám,” the waist-cloth, the Pilgrim’s attire.

221 He is described by Al–Siyúti (p. 309) as “very fair, tall handsome and of captivating appearance.”

222 Arab. “Uzn al-Kuffah” lit. “Ear of the basket,” which vulgar Egyptians pronounce “Wizn,” so “Wajh” (face) becomes “Wishsh” and so forth.

When it was the Eight Hundred and Thirty-eighth Night,

She pursued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when Khalifah the Fisherman and the Caliph hauled that net ashore, they found it full of fish of all kinds; and Khalifah said to Al- Rashid, “By Allah, O piper, thou art foul of favor but, an thou apply thyself to fishing, thou wilt make a mighty fine fisherman. But now ’twere best thou bestraddle thine ass and make for the market and fetch me a pair of frails, 223 and I will look after the fish till thou return, when I and thou will load it on thine ass’s back. I have scales and weights and all we want, so we can take them with us and thou wilt have nothing to do but to hold the scales and pouch the price; for here we have fish worth twenty dinars. So be fast with the frails and loiter not.” Answered the Caliph, “I hear and obey” and mounting, left him with his fish, and spurred his mule, in high good humour, and ceased not laughing over his adventures with the Fisherman, till he came up to Ja’afar, who said to him, “O Commander of the Faithful, belike, when thou wentest down to drink, thou found a pleasant flower-garden and enteredst and tookest thy pleasure therein alone?” At this Al–Rashid fell a laughing again and all the Barmecides rose and kissed the ground before him, saying, “O Commander of the Faithful, Allah make joy to endure for thee and do away annoy from thee! What was the cause of thy delaying when thou faredst to drink and what hath befallen thee?” Quoth the Caliph, “Verily, a right wonderous tale and a joyous adventure and a wonderous hath befallen me.” And he repeated to them what had passed between himself and the Fisherman and his words, “Thou stolest my clothes!” and how he had given him his gown and how he had cut off a part of it, finding it too long for him. Said Ja’afar, “By Allah, O Commander of the Faithful, I had it in mind to beg the gown of thee; but now I will go straight to the Fisherman and buy it of him.” The Caliph replied, “By Allah, he hath cut off a third part of the skirt and spoilt it! But, O Ja’afar, I am tired with fishing in the river, for I have caught great store of fish which I left on the bank with my master Khalifah, and he is watching them and waiting for me to return to him with a couple of frails and a matchet. 224 Then we are to go, I and he, to the market and sell the fish and share the price.” Ja’afar rejoined, “O Commander of the Faithful, I will bring you a purchaser for your fish.” And Al–Rashid retorted, “O Ja’afar, by the virtue of my holy forefathers, whoso bringeth me one of the fish that are before Khalifah, who taught me angling, I will give him for it a gold dinar.” So the crier proclaimed among the troops that they should go forth and buy fish for the Caliph, and they all arose and made for the river-side. Now, while Khalifah was expecting the Caliph’s return with the two frails, behold, the Mamelukes swooped down upon him like vultures and took the fish and wrapped them in gold-embroidered kerchiefs, beating one another in their eagerness to get at the Fisherman. Whereupon quoth Khalifah, “Doubtless these are of the fish of Paradise!” 225 and hending two fish in right hand and left, plunged into the water up to his neck and fell a-saying, “O Allah, by the virtue of these fish, let Thy servant the piper, my partner, come to me at this very moment.” And suddenly up to him came a black slave which was the chief of the Caliph’s negro eunuchs. He had tarried behind the rest, by reason of his horse having stopped to make water by the way, and finding that naught remained of the fish, little or much, looked right and left, till he espied Khalifah standing in the stream, with a fish in either hand, and said to him, “Come hither, O Fisherman!” But Khalifah replied, “Begone and none of your impudence!” 226 So the eunuch went up to him and said, “Give me the fish and I will pay thee their price.” Replied the Fisherman, “Art thou little of wit? I will not sell them.” Therewith the eunuch drew his mace upon him, and Khalifah cried out, saying, “Strike not, O loon! Better largesse than the mace.” 227 So saying, he threw the two fishes to the eunuch, who took them and laid them in his kerchief. Then he put hand in pouch, but found not a single dirham and said to Khalifah, “O Fisherman, verily thou art out of luck for, by Allah, I have not a silver about me! But come to-morrow to the Palace of the Caliphate and ask for the eunuch Sandal; whereupon the castratos will direct thee to me and by coming thither thou shalt get what falleth to thy lot and therewith wend thy ways.” Quoth Khalifah, “Indeed, this is a blessed day and its blessedness was manifest from the first of it!”228 Then he shouldered his net and returned to Baghdad; and as he passed through the streets, the folk saw the Caliph’s gown on him and stared at him till he came to the gate of his quarter, by which was the shop of the Caliph’s tailor. When the man saw him wearing a dress of the apparel of the Caliph, worth a thousand dinars, he said to him, “O Khalifah, whence hadst thou that gown?” Replied the Fisherman, “What aileth thee to be impudent? I had it of one whom I taught to fish and who is become my apprentice. O forgave him the cutting off of his hand 229 for that he stole my clothes and gave me this cape in their place.” So the tailor knew that the Caliph had come upon him as he was fishing and jested with him and given him the gown;—And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased saying her permitted say.

223 Arab. “Bi-fardayn” = with two baskets, lit. “two singles,” but the context shows what is meant. English Frail and French Fraile are from Arab. “Farsalah” a parcel (now esp. of coffee-beans) evidently derived from the low Lat. “Parcella” (Du Cange, Paris, firmin Didot 1845). Compare “ream,” vol. v. 109.

224 Arab. “Sátúr,” a kind of chopper which here would be used for the purpose of splitting and cleaning and scaling the fish.

225 And, consequently, that the prayer he is about to make will find ready acceptance.

226 Arab. “Ruh bilá Fuzúl” (lit. excess, exceeding) still a popular phrase.

227 i.e. better give the fish than have my head broken.

228 Said ironicč, a favourite figure of speech with the Fellah: the day began badly and threatened to end unluckily.

229 The penalty of Theft. See vol. i. 274.

When it was the Eight Hundred and Thirty-ninth Night,

She resume, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that the Caliph came upon Khalifah the Fisherman and gave him his own gown in jest wherewith the man fared home. Such was his case; but as regards Harun al-Rashid, he had gone out a-hunting and a-fishing only to divert his thoughts from the damsel, Kut al-Kulub. But when Zubaydah heard of her and of the Caliph’s devotion to her, the Lady was fired with the jealousy which the more especially fireth women, so that she refused meat and drink and rejected the delights of sleep and awaited the Caliph’s going forth on a journey or what not, that she might set a snare for the damsel. So when she learnt that he was gone hunting and fishing, she bade her women furnish the Palace fairly and decorate it splendidly and serve up viands and confections; and amongst the rest she made a China dish of the daintiest sweetmeats that can be made wherein she had put Bhang. Then she ordered one of her eunuchs go to the damsel Kut al-Kulub and bid her to the banquet, saying, “The Lady Zubaydah bint Al–Kasim, the wife of the Commander of the Faithful, hath drunken medicine to-day and, having heard tell of the sweetness of thy singing, longeth to divert herself somewhat of thine art.” Kut al-Kulub replied, “Hearing and obedience are due to Allah and the Lady Zubaydah,” and rose without stay or delay, unknowing what was hidden for her in the Secret Purpose. Then she took with her what instruments she needed and, accompanying the eunuch, ceased not fairing till she stood in the presence of the Princess. When she entered she kissed ground before her again and again, then rising to her feet, said, “Peace be on the Lady of the exalted house Abbasi and scion of the Prophet’s family! May Allah fulfil thee of peace and prosperity in the days and the years!” 230 Then she stood with the rest of the women and eunuchs, and presently the Lady Zubaydah raised her eyes and considered her beauty and loveliness. She saw a damsel with cheeks smooth as rose and breasts like granado, a face moon-bright, a brow flower-white and great eyes black as night; her eyelids were langour-dight and her face beamed with light, as if the sun from her forehead arose and the murks of the night from the locks of her brow; and the fragrance of musk from her breath strayed and flowers bloomed in her lovely face inlaid; the moon beamed from her forehead and in her slender shape the branches swayed. She was like the full moon shining in the nightly shade; her eyes wantoned, her eyebrows were like a bow arched and her lips of coral moulded. Her beauty amazed all who espied her and her glances amated all who eyed her. Glory be to Him who formed her and fashioned her and perfected her! Brief, she was even as saith the poet of one who favoured her,

“When she’s incensed thou seest folk like slain,
And when she’s
pleased, their souls are quick again:
Her eyne are armed with glances magical
Wherewith she kills and
quickens as she’s fain.
The Worlds she leadeth captive with her eyes
As tho’ the Worlds
were all her slavish train.”

Quoth the Lady Zubaydah, “Well come, and welcome and fair cheer to thee, O Kut al-Kulub! Sit and divert us with thine art and the goodliness of thine accomplishments.” Quoth the damsel, “I hear and I obey”; and, putting out her hand, took the tambourine, whereof one of its praisers speaketh in the following verses,

“Ho thou o’ the tabret, my heart takes flight
And love-smit
cries while thy fingers smite!
Thou takest naught but a wounded heart,
The while for acceptance longs the wight:
So say thou word or heavy or light;
Play whate’er thou please
it will charm the sprite.
Sois bonne, unveil thy cheek, ma belle
Rise, deftly dance and all hearts delight.”

Then she smote the tambourine briskly and so sang thereto, that she stopped the birds in the sky and the place danced with them blithely; after which she laid down the tambourine and took the pipe 231 whereof it is said,

“She hath eyes whose babes wi’ their fingers sign
To sweet
tunes without a discordant line.”

And as the poet also said in this couplet,

“And, when she announceth the will to sing,
For Union-joy ’tis
a time divine!”

Then she laid down the pipe, after she had charmed therewith all who were present, and took up the lute, whereof saith the poet,

“How many a blooming bough in the glee-girl’s hand is fain
as lute to ‘witch great souls by charm of cunning strain!
She sweeps tormenting lute strings by her artful touch
finger-tips that surely chain with endless chain.”

Then she tightened its pegs and tuned its strings and laying it in her lap, bended over it as mother bendeth over child; and it seemed as it were of her and her lute that the poet spoke in these couplets,

“Sweetly discourses she on Persian string
And Unintelligence
makes understand.
And teaches she that Love’s a murtherer,
Who oft the reasoning
Moslem hath unmann’d.
A maid, by Allah, in whose palm a thing
Of painted wood like mouth can speech command.
With lute she stauncheth flow of Love; and so
Stops flow of blood the cunning leach’s hand.”

Then she preluded in fourteen different modes and sang to the lute an entire piece, so as to confound the gazers and delight her hearers. After which she recited these two couplets,

“The coming unto thee is blest:
Therein new joys for aye
Its blisses are continuous
Its blessings never end.”

—And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased to say her permitted say.

230 This is the model of a courtly compliment; and it would still be admired wherever Arabs are not “frankified.”

231 Arab. “Shibábah;” Lane makes it a kind of reed- flageolet.

When it was the Eight Hundred and Fortieth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that the maiden, Kut al-Kulub, after singing these songs and sweeping the strings in presence of the Lady Zubaydah, rose and exhibited tricks of sleight of hand and legerdemain and all manner pleasing arts, till the Princess came near to fall in love with her and said to herself, “Verily, my cousin Al–Rashid is not to blame for loving her!” Then the damsel kissed ground before Zubaydah and sat down, whereupon they set food before her. Presently they brought her the drugged dish of sweetmeats and she ate thereof; and hardly had it settled in her stomach when her head fell backward and she sank on the ground sleeping. With this, the Lady said to her women, “Carry her up to one of the chambers, till I summon her”; and they replied, “We hear and we obey.” Then said she to one of her eunuchs, “Fashion me a chest and bring it hitherto to me!”, and shortly afterwards she bade make the semblance of a tomb and spread the report that Kut al-Kulub had choked and died, threatening her familiars that she would smite the neck of whoever should say, “She is alive.” Now, behold, the Caliph suddenly returned from the chase, and the first enquiry he made was for the damsel. So there came to him one of his eunuchs, whom the Lady Zubaydah had charged to declare she was dead, if the Caliph should ask for her and, kissing ground before him, said, “May thy head live, O my lord! Be certified that Kut al-Kulub choked in eating and is dead.” Whereupon cried Al–Rashid, “God never gladden thee with good news, O thou bad slave!” and entered the Palace, where he heard of her death from every one and asked, “Where is her tomb?” So they brought him to the sepulchre and showed him the pretended tomb, saying, “This is her burial-place.” When he saw it, he cried out and wept and embraced it, quoting these two couplets, 232

“By Allah, O tomb, have her beauties ceased and disappeared from

And is the countenance changed and wan, that shone so wonder-bright?
O tomb, O tomb, thou art neither heaven nor garden, verily:
comes it then that swaying branch and moon in thee unite?

The Caliph, weeping sore for her, abode by the tomb a full hour, after which he arose and went away, in the utmost distress and the deepest melancholy. So the Lady Zubaydah saw that her plot had succeeded and forthright sent for the eunuch and said, “Hither with the chest!” He set it before her, when she bade bring the damsel and locking her up therein, said to the Eunuch, “Take all pains to sell this chest and make it a condition with the purchaser that he buy it locked; then give alms with its price.” 233 So he took it and went forth, to do her bidding. Thus fared it with these; but as for Khalifah the Fisherman, when morning morrowed and shone with its light and sheen, he said to himself, “I cannot do aught better to-day than visit the Eunuch who bought the fish of me, for he appointed me to come to him in the Palace of the Caliphate.” So he went forth of his lodging, intending for the palace, and when he came thither, he found Mamelukes, negro-slaves and eunuchs standing and sitting; and looking at them, behold, seated amongst them was the Eunuch who had taken the fish of him, with the white slaves waiting on him. Presently, one of the Mameluke-lads called out to him; whereupon the Eunuch turned to see who he was an lo! it was the Fisherman. Now when Khalifah was ware that he saw him and recognized him, he said to him, “I have not failed thee, O my little Tulip! 234 On this wise are men of their word.” Hearing his address, Sandal the Eunuch 235 laughed and replied, “By Allah, thou art right, O Fisherman,” and put his hand to his pouch, to give him somewhat; but at that moment there arose a great clamour. So he raised his head to see what was to do and finding that it was the Wazir Ja’afar the Barmecide coming forth from the Caliph’s presence, he rose to him and forewent him, and they walked about, conversing for a longsome time. Khalifah the Fisherman waited awhile; then, growing weary of standing and finding that the Eunuch took no heed of him, he set himself in his way and beckoned to him from afar, saying, “O my lord Tulip, give me my due and let me go!” The Eunuch heard him, but was ashamed to answer him because of the minister’s presence; so he went on talking with Ja’afar and took no notice whatever of the Fisherman. Whereupon quoth Khalifah, “O Slow o’ Pay! 236 May Allah put to shame all churls and all who take folks’s goods and are niggardly with them! I put myself under thy protection, O my lord Bran-belly, 237 to give me my due and let me go!” The Eunuch heard him, but was ashamed to answer him before Ja’afar; and the Minister saw the Fisherman beckoning and talking to him, though he knew not what he was saying; so he said to Sandal, misliking his behaviour, “O Eunuch, what would yonder beggar with thee?” Sandal replied, “Dost thou not know him, O my lord the Wazir?”; and Ja’afar answered, “By Allah, I know him not! How should I know a man I have never seen but at this moment?” Rejoined the Eunuch, “O my lord, this is the Fisherman whose fish we seized on the banks of the Tigris. I came too late to get any and was ashamed to return to the Prince of True Believers, empty-handed, when all the Mamelukes had some. Presently I espied the Fisherman standing in mid-stream, calling on Allah, with four fishes in his hands, and said to him, ‘Give me what thou hast there and take their worth.’ He handed me the fish and I put my hand into my pocket, purposing to gift him with somewhat, but found naught therein and said, ‘Come to me in the Palace, and I will give thee wherewithal to aid thee in thy poverty. So he came to me to-day and I was putting hand to pouch, that I might give him somewhat, when thou camest forth and I rose to wait on thee and was diverted with thee from him, till he grew tired of waiting and this is the whole story, how he cometh to be standing here.” —And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased saying her permitted say.

232 These lines occur in vol. i. 76: I quote Mr. Payne.

233 The instinctive way of juggling with Heaven like our sanding the sugar and going to church.

234 Arab. “Yá Shukayr,” from Shakar, being red (clay, etc.): Shukár is an anemone or a tulip and Shukayr is its dim. Form. Lane’s Shaykh made it a dim. of “Ashkar” = tawny, ruddy (of complexion), so the former writes, “O Shukeyr.” Mr. Payne prefers “O Rosy cheeks.”

235 For “Sandal,” see vol. ii. 50. Sandalí properly means an Eunuch clean rasé, but here Sandal is a P.N. = Sandal-wood.

236 Arab. “Yá mumátil,” one who retards payment.

237 Arab. “Kirsh al-Nukhál” = guts of bran, a term too little fitted for the handsome and distinguished Persian. But Khalifah is a Fallah-grazioso of normal assurance shrewd withal; he blunders like an Irishman of the last generation and he uses the first epithet that comes to his tongue. See Night dcccxliii. for the sudden change in Khalifah.

When it was the Eight Hundred and Forty-first Night,

She continued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when Sandal the Eunuch related to Ja’afar the Barmecide the tale of Khalifah the Fisherman, ending with, “This is the whole story and how he cometh to be standing here!” the Wazir, hearing this account, smiled and said, “O Eunuch, how is it that this Fisherman cometh in his hour of need and thou satisfiest him not? Dost thou not know him, O Chief of the Eunuchs?” “No,” answered Sandal and Ja’afar said, “This is the Master of the Commander of the Faithful, and his partner and our lord the Caliph has arisen this morning, strait of breast, heavy of heart and troubled of thought, nor is there aught will broaden his breast save this fisherman. So let him not go, till I crave the Caliph’s pleasure concerning him and bring him before him; perchance Allah will relieve him of his oppression and console him for the loss of Kut al-Kulub, by means of the Fisherman’s presence, and he will give him wherewithal to better himself; and thou wilt be the cause of this.” Replied Sandal, “O my lord, do as thou wilt and may Allah Almighty long continue thee a pillar of the dynasty of the Commander of the Faithful, whose shadow Allah perpetuate 238 and prosper it, root and branch!” Then the Wazir Ja’afar rose up and went in to the Caliph, and Sandal ordered the Mamelukes not to leave the Fisherman; whereupon Khalifah cried, “How goodly is thy bounty, O Tulip! The seeker is become the sought. I come to seek my due, and they imprison me for debts in arrears!” 239 When Ja’afar came in to the presence of the Caliph, he found him sitting with his head bowed earthwards, breast straitened and mind melancholy, humming the verses of the poet,

“My blamers instant bid that I for her become consoled;
But I,
what can I do, whose heart declines to be controlled?
And how can I in patience bear the loss of lovely maid,
When fails me patience for a love that holds with firmest hold!
Ne’er I’ll forget her nor the bowl that ‘twixt us both went round

And wine of glances maddened me with drunkenness ensoul’d.”

Whenas Ja’afar stood in the presence, he said, “Peace be upon thee, O Commander of the Faithful, Defender of the honour of the Faith and descendant of the uncle of the Prince of the Apostles, Allah assain him and save him and his family one and all!” The Caliph raised his head and answered, “And on thee be peace and the mercy of Allah and His blessings!” Quoth Ja’afar; “With leave of the Prince of True Believers, his servant would speak without restraint.” Asked the Caliph, “And when was restraint put upon thee in speech and thou the Prince of Wazirs? Say what thou wilt.” Answered Ja’afar, “When I went out, O my lord, from before thee, intending for my house, I saw standing at the door thy master and teacher and partner, Khalifah the Fisherman, who was aggrieved at thee and complained of thee saying, ‘Glory be to God! I taught him to fish and he went away to fetch me a pair of frails, but never came back: and this is not the way of a good partner or of a good apprentice.’ So, if thou hast a mind to partnership, well and good; and if not, tell him, that he may take to partner another.” Now when the Caliph heard these words he smiled and his straitness of breast was done away with and he said, “My life on thee, is this the truth thou sayest, that the Fisherman standeth at the door?” and Ja’afar replied, “By thy life, O Commander of the Faithful, he standeth at the door.” Quoth the Caliph, “O Ja’afar, by Allah, I will assuredly do my best to give him his due! If Allah at my hands send him misery, he shall have it; and if prosperity he shall have it.” Then he took a piece of paper and cutting it in pieces, said to the Wazir, “O Ja’afar, write down with thine own hand twenty sums of money, from one dinar to a thousand, and the names of all kinds of offices and dignitaries from the least appointment to the Caliphate; also twenty kinds of punishment from the lightest beating to death.” 240 “I hear and obey, O Commander of the Faithful,” answered Ja’afar, and did as he was bidden. Then said the Caliph, “O Ja’afar, I swear by my holy forefathers and by my kinship to Hamzah 241 and Akil, 242 that I mean to summon the fisherman and bid him take one of these papers, whose contents none knowesth save thou and I; and whatsoever is written in the paper which he shall choose, I will give it to him; though it be the Caliphate I will divest myself thereof and invest him therewith and grudge it not to him; and, on the other hand, if there be written therein hanging or mutilation or death, I will execute it upon him. Now go and fetch him to me.” When Ja’afar heard this, he said to himself, “There is no Majesty and there is no Might save in Allah, the Glorious, the Great! It may be somewhat will fall to this poor wretch’s lot that will bring about his destruction, and I shall be the cause. But the Caliph hath sworn; so nothing remains now but to bring him in, and naught will happen save whatso Allah willeth.” Accordingly he went out to Khalifah the Fisherman and laid hold of his hand to carry him in to the Caliph, whereupon his reason fled and he said in himself, “What a stupid I was to come after yonder ill-omened slave, Tulip, whereby he hath brought me in company with Bran-belly!” Ja’afar fared on with him, with Mamelukes before and behind, whilst he said, “Doth not arrest suffice, but these must go behind and before me, to hinder my making off?” till they had traversed seven vestibules, when the Wazir said to him, “Mark my words, O Fisherman! Thou standest before the Commander of the Faithful and Defender of the Faith!” Then he raised the great curtain and Khalifah’s eyes fell on the Caliph, who was seated on his couch, with the Lords of the realm standing in attendance upon him. As soon as he knew him, he went up to him and said, “Well come, and welcome to thee, O piper! ‘Twas not right of thee to make thyself a Fisherman and go away, leaving me sitting to guard the fish, and never to return! For, before I was aware, there came up Mamelukes on beasts of all manner colours, and snatched away the fish from me, I standing alone, and this was all of thy fault; for, hadst thou returned with the frails forthright, we had sold an hundred dinars’ worth of fish. And now I come to seek my due, and they have arrested me but thou, who hath imprisoned thee also in this place?” The Caliph smiled and raising a corner of the curtain, put forth his head and said to the Fisherman, “Come hither and take thee one of these papers.” Quoth Khalifah the Fisherman, “Yesterday thou wast a fisherman, and to-day thou hast become an astrologer; but the more trades a man hath, the poorer he waxeth.” Thereupon, Ja’afar, said, “Take the paper at once, and do as the Commander of the Faithful biddeth thee without prating.” So he came forward and put forth his hand saying, “Far be it from me that this piper should ever again be my knave and fish with me!” Then taking the paper he handed it to the Caliph, saying, “O piper, what hath come out for me therein? Hide naught thereof.”—And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased to say her permitted say.

238 So the Persian “May your shadow never be less” means, I have said, the shadow which you throw over your servant. Shade, cold water and fresh breezes are the joys of life in arid Arabia.

239 When a Fellah demanded money due to him by the Government of Egypt, he was a once imprisoned for arrears of taxes and thus prevented from being troublesome. I am told that matters have improved under English rule, but I “doubt the fact.”

240 This freak is of course not historical. The tale-teller introduces it to enhance the grandeur and majesty of Harun al-Rashid, and the vulgar would regard it as a right kingly diversion. Westerns only wonder that such things could be.

241 Uncle of the Prophet: for his death see Pilgrimage ii. 248.

When it was the Eight Hundred and Forty-second Night,

She continued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when Khalifah the Fisherman took up one of the papers and handed it to the Caliph he said, “O piper, what have come out to me therein? Hide naught thereof.” So Al–Rashid received it and passed it on to Ja’afar and said to him, “Read what is therein.” He looked at it and said, “There is no Majesty there is no Might save in Allah, the Glorious, the Great!” Said the Caliph, “Good news, 243 O Ja’afar? What seest thou therein?” Answered the Wazir, “O Commander of the Faithful, there came up from the paper, ‘Let the Fisherman receive an hundred blows with a stick.’” So the Caliph commanded to beat the Fisherman and they gave him an hundred sticks: after which he arose, saying, “Allah damn this, O Bran-belly! Are jail and sticks part of the game?” Then said Ja’afar, “O Commander of the Faithful, this poor devil is come to the river, and how shall he go away thirsting? We hope that among the alms-deeds of the Commander of the Faithful, he may have leave to take another paper, so haply somewhat may come out wherewithal he may succor his poverty.” Said the Caliph, “By Allah, O Ja’afar, if he take another paper and death be written therein, I will assuredly kill him, and thou wilt be the cause.” Answered Ja’afar, “If he die he will be at rest.” But Khalifah the Fisherman said to him, “Allah ne’er gladden thee with good news! Have I made Baghdad strait upon you, that ye seek to slay me?” Quoth Ja’afar, “Take thee a paper and crave the blessing of Allah Almighty!” So he put out his hand and taking a paper, gave it to Ja’afar, who read it and was silent. The Caliph asked, “Why art thou silent, O son of Yahya?”; and he answered, “O Commander of the Faithful, there hath come out on this paper, ‘Naught shall be given to the Fisherman.’” Then said the Caliph, “His daily bread will not come from us: bid him fare forth from before our face.” Quoth Ja’afar, “By the claims of thy pious forefathers, let him take a third paper, it may be it will bring him alimony;” and quoth the Caliph, “Let him take one and no more.” So he put out his hand and took a third paper, and behold, therein was written, “Let the Fisherman be given one dinar.” Ja’afar cried to him, “I sought good fortune for thee, but Allah willed not to thee aught save this dinar.” And Khalifah answered, “Verily, a dinar for every hundred sticks were rare good luck, may Allah not send thy body health!” The Caliph laughed at him and Ja’afar took him by the hand and led him out. When he reached the door, Sandal the eunuch saw him and said to him, “Hither, O Fisherman! Give us portion of that which the Commander of the Faithful hath bestowed on thee, whilst jesting with thee.” Replied Khalifah, “By Allah, O Tulip, thou art right! Wilt share with me, O nigger? Indeed I have eaten stick to the tune of an hundred blows and have earned one dinar, and thou art but too welcome to it.” So saying, he threw him the dinar and went out, with the tears flowing down the plain of his cheeks. When the eunuch saw him in this plight, he knew that he had spoken sooth and called to the lads to fetch him back: so they brought him back and Sandal, putting his hand to his pouch, pulled out a red purse, whence he emptied an hundred golden dinars into the Fisherman’s hand, saying, “Take this gold in payment of thy fish and wend thy ways.” So Khalifah, in high good humor, took the hundred ducats and the Caliph’s one dinar and went his way, and forgot the beating. Now, as Allah willed it for the furthering of that which He had decreed, he passed by the mart of the hand-maidens and seeing there a mighty ring where many folks were foregathering, said to himself, “What is this crowd?” So he brake through the merchants and others, who said, “Make wide for the Skipper Rapscallion, 244 and let him pass.” Then he looked and behold, he saw a chest, with an eunuch seated thereon and an old man standing by it, and the Shaykh was crying, “O merchants, O men of money, who will hasten and hazard his coin for this chest of unknown contents from the Palace of the Lady Zubaydah bint al-Kasim, wife of the Commander of the Faithful? How much shall I say for you, Allah bless you all!” Quoth one of the merchants, “By Allah, this is a risk! But I will say one word and no blame to me. Be it mine for twenty dinars.” Quoth another, “Fifty,” and they went on bidding, one against other, till the price reached an hundred ducats. Then said the crier, “Will any of you bid more, O merchants?” And Khalifah the Fisherman said, “Be it mine for an hundred ducats and one dinar.” The merchants, hearing these words, thought he was jesting and laughed at him, saying, “O eunuch sell it to Khalifah for an hundred ducats and one dinar!” Quoth the eunuch, “By Allah, I will sell it to none but him! Take it, O Fisherman, the Lord bless thee in it, and here with thy gold.” So Khalifah pulled out the ducats and gave them to the eunuch, who, the bargain being duly made, delivered to him the chest and bestowed the price in alms on the spot; after which he returned to the Palace and acquainted the Lady Zubaydah with what he had done, whereat she rejoiced. Meanwhile the Fisherman hove the chest on shoulder, but could not carry it on this wise for the excess of its weight; so he lifted it on to his head and thus bore it to the quarter where he lived. Here he set it down and being weary, sat awhile, bemusing what had befallen him and saying in himself, “Would Heaven I knew what is in this chest!” Then he opened the door of his lodging and haled the chest until he got it into his closet; after which he strove to open it, but failed. Quoth he, “What folly possessed me to buy this chest? There is no help for it but to break it open and see what is herein.” So he applied himself to the lock, but could not open it, and said to himself, “I will leave it till to-morrow.” Then he would have stretched him out to sleep, but could find no room; for the chest filled the whole closet. So he got upon it and lay him down; but, when he had lain awhile, behold, he felt something stir under him whereat sleep forsook him and his reason fled.—And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased saying her permitted say.

242 First cousin of the Prophet, son of Abú Tálib, a brother of Al–Abbas from whom the Abbasides claimed descent.

243 i.e. I hope thou hast or Allah grant thou have good tidings to tell me.

244 Arab. “Nákhúzah Zulayt.” The former, from the Persian Nákhodá or ship-captain which is also used in a playful sense “a godless wight,” one owning no (ná) God (Khudá). Zulayt = a low fellow, blackguard.

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