The Book of Burtoniana

Letters & Memoirs of Sir Richard Francis Burton

Volume 4: Register and Bibliography

Edited by Gavan Tredoux.

 


 

[DRAFT] 8/8/2016 9:29 PM

© 2016, Gavan Tredoux. 
http://burtoniana.org.

 

The Book of Burtoniana:
    Volume 1: 1841-1864
    Volume 2: 1865-1879
    Volume 3: 1880-1924
    Volume 4: Register and Bibliography

 

Cover image: Burton in his bedroom study, by Albert Letchford, by kind permission of the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames, Orleans House Gallery:[1]

 



 

Contents.

Contents. iii

List of Illustrations. ix

Glossary. xii

Chronology. 1

Register: A-J. 14

1.     Abraham, Walter. 14

2.     Adye, Major-General Sir John (1819-1900). 14

3.     Arbuthnot, Forster Fitzgerald (1833-1901). 14

4.     Arnold, Julian Tregenna Biddulph (1860-1945?). 17

5.     Ashbee, Charles Robert (1863-1842). 18

6.     Ashbee, Henry Spencer (1834-1900). 18

7.     Ashby-Sterry, Joseph (1838-1917). 20

8.     Aubertin, John James (1818-1900). 20

9.     Austin, Richard (1832-1899). 20

10.       Babington, William. 21

11.       Back, Sir George (1796–1878). 21

12.       Badger, George Percy (1815-1888). 22

13.       Bainton, George (1847-1925). 23

14.       Baker, Frederick Grenfell (1853-1930). 23

15.       Baker, Sir Samuel White (1821-1893). 24

16.       Bancroft, Squire (1841-1926). 24

17.       Barth, Heinrich (1821-1865). 25

18.       Barnard, Charles Inman (1850-1942). 25

19.       Bates, Henry Walter (1825-1892). 25

20.       Bellamy, Henry Edward Vaux (1837?-1889). 26

21.       Bispham, David Scull (1857-1921). 27

22.       Bird, Alice “Lallah” (?-1921). 28

23.       Bird, Dr. George (1817-1900). 28

24.       Blunt, Wilfrid Scawen (1840-1922). 30

25.       Blumhardt, James Fuller (?-1922). 31

26.       Blackwood, John (1818-1879). 32

27.       Brassey, Anna Allnutt (1839–1887). 32

28.       Buckley-Mathew, Sir George Benvenuto (1807-1879). 32

29.       Burke, Luke (?-1885). 33

30.       Burton, Isabel (1831-1896). 33

31.       Burnand, Sir Francis Cowley (1836-1917). 34

32.       Bushe, Charles Percy (1829-1898). 35

33.       Burton, Edward Joseph Netterville (1824-1895). 35

34.       Burton, Joseph Netterville (1783?-1857). 37

35.       Butler, Alfred Joshua (1850-1936). 38

36.       Butterworth, Alan (1864-1937). 38

37.       Cameron, Verney Lovett (1844-1894). 38

38.       Cautley, Philip Proby. 39

39.       Chaillé-Long, Charles (1842-1917). 39

40.       Clodd, Edward (1840-1930). 40

41.       Clouston, William Alexander (1843-1896). 40

42.       Coghlan, William Marcus (1803-1885). 40

43.       Coimbra, Dr. Augusto Teixeira.. 41

44.       Coke, Henry John (1827-1916). 42

45.       Colquhoun, Archibald Ross (1848–1914). 43

46.       Crane, Walter (1845-1915). 43

47.       Davenport, The Brothers. 43

48.       Davey, Richard Patrick Boyle (1848-1915). 44

49.       Dawson, Llewellyn Styles (1847-1921). 44

50.       De Kusel, Samuel Selig (1848-1917). 44

51.       De Leon, Edwin (1818–1891). 44

52.       Dennis, George (1814-1898). 45

53.       De Ruvignes, Charles Henry Theodore Bruce (1829-1883) 45

54.       De Ruvigny. 45

55.       Didier, Charles (1805-1864). 46

56.       Doughty, Charles Montagu (1843-1926). 46

57.       Drake, Charles Francis Tyrwhitt (1846–1874). 46

58.       Du Chaillu, Paul Belloni (1835-1902). 47

59.       Dunraven, Earl of (Windham Thomas Wyndham-Quin) (1841-1926). 47

60.       Eames, William. James. 48

61.       Edwards, Henry Sutherland (1828-1906). 48

62.       Edwards, John Passmore (1823-1911). 48

63.       Eldridge, George Jackson (1826-?). 49

64.       Elliot, Sir Henry (1817-1907). 49

65.       Ellis, Alexander George (1858-1942). 49

66.       Erhardt, Rev. Johann Jakob (1823-1901). 50

67.       Faber, George Louis (1843-1915). 50

68.       Fahie, John Joseph (1846-1934). 50

69.       Ferguson, Sir Samuel (1810-1886). 51

70.       Freeman, Edward August (1823-1892). 51

71.       Friswell, James Hain (1825-1878). 51

72.       Friswell, Laura (1850-1908). 51

73.       Furniss, Harry (1854-1925). 52

74.       Galton, Sir Francis (1822-1911). 52

75.       Geary, Grattan (?-1900). 52

76.       Gerard, Cécile Jules Basile (1817-1864). 53

77.       Gessi, Romolo (1831-1881). 53

78.       Gordon, Major-General Charles George (1833–1885). 53

79.       Grant, James Augustus (1827-1892). 54

80.       Granville, Earl (1815–1891). 54

81.       Graves-Sawle, Lady (1818-1914). 54

82.       Hale, Richard Walden (1871-1943). 55

83.       Hamerton, Atkins (1804-1857). 55

84.       Hamilton, James “Abbé” (?-1868). 56

85.       Hankey, Frederick (1821-1882). 57

86.       Hare, Augustus John Cuthbert (1834-1903). 63

87.       Harris, Frank (1856-1931). 64

88.       Herne, George Edward (1822?-1902). 64

89.       Hockley, Frederick (1809-1885). 65

90.       Hodgson, Colonel Studholme (1805-1890). 65

91.       Hooker, William Jackson (1785-1865). 74

92.       Hooker, Joseph Dalton (1817-1911). 74

93.       Hunt, George Samuel Lennon. 74

94.       Hutchinson, Thomas Joseph (1820-1885). 75

95.       Hyndman, Henry Mayers (1842-1921). 75

96.       Ionides, Luke (1837–1924). 75

97.       Iturburu, Atilano Calvo. 76

98.       James, Frank Linsly (1851-1890). 76

99.       Johnston, Sir Harry (1858-1927). 76

100.     Jones, Herbert (?–1928). 77

Portraits. 78

Register: K-Z. 106

101.     Kingsford, Anna Bonus (1846-1888). 106

102.     Kirby, William Forsell (1844-1912). 106

103.     Kirk, John (1832-1922). 107

104.     Kirkwood, Roy. 107

105.     Krapf, Johann Ludwig (1810-1881). 108

106.     Larking, John Wingfield (1801-1891). 108

107.     Laughland, Edward. 109

108.     Leighton, Frederic (1830-1896). 112

109.     Levant Herald. 113

110.     Leveson, Henry Astbury (1828-1875). 113

111.     Lynslager, James (1810-1864). 114

112.     Mackenzie, Kenneth Robert Henderson (1833-1886). 115

113.     Mann, Gustav (1836–1916). 115

114.     Markham, Sir Clements Robert (1830-1916). 115

115.     Martin, Sir James Ranald FRS (1796-1874). 116

116.     Massey, Gerald (1828-1907). 116

117.     McCarthy, Edward Thomas (1856?–1943). 117

118.     McCarthy, Justin (1830–1912). 117

119.     McCarthy, Justin Huntly (1859-1936). 117

120.     Milnes, Monckton (Lord Houghton) (1809-1885). 118

121.     Mitchell, Roland Lyon Nosworthy (1847-1931). 119

122.     Mitford, Bertram (Lord Redesdale) (1837-1916). 120

123.     Mohl, Mary Elizabeth (1793-1883). 120

124.     Money, Edward James (1822-1889). 121

125.     Moore, Noel Temple (1833-1903). 121

126.     Murchison, Sir Roderick FRS (1792-1871). 121

127.     Murray, Rear-Admiral Henry Anthony (1810-1865). 122

128.     Nichols, Harry Sidney (1865-1941?). 122

129.     Nicolson, Harold (1886-1968). 123

130.     Neville, Amelia Ransome (1837-1927). 123

131.     Notcutt, Oliver. 123

132.     Orton, Arthur (the ‘Tichborne Claimant’) (1834-1898). 123

133.     Ouida (Marie Louise de la Ramée) (1839-1908). 124

134.     Outram, Sir James (1803-1863). 124

135.     Paget, Lady Walburga (1839-1929). 125

136.     Palgrave, William Gifford (1826-1888). 125

137.     Parkinson, Joseph Charles (1833-1908). 125

138.     Paull, George (1837-1865). 126

139.     Payne, John (1842-1916). 126

140.     Quaritch, Bernard (1819-1899). 126

141.     Rashid Pasha, Mehmet (?-1876). 127

142.     Rathborne, Captain Anthony Blake (1811?-1885). 127

143.     Rawson, Albert Leighton (1829-1902). 130

144.     Reade, William Winwood (1838-1875). 130

145.     Rebmann, Johannes (1820-1876). 131

146.     Rhys, Ernest Percival (1859-1946). 133

147.     Ricci, Dr. Hermann Robert (R. H. R.). 133

148.     Richards, Alfred Bate (1820-1876). 134

149.     Rigby, Christopher Palmer (1820-1885). 135

150.     Roscher, Dr. Albrecht (1836-1860). 140

151.     Rossetti, Dante Gabriel (1828-1882). 141

152.     Russell, Katherine Louisa (1844-1874). 141

153.     Russell, Lord John, Viscount Amberley (1842-1876). 142

154.     Russell, Odo William Leopold (1829-1884). 142

155.     Saker, Rev. Alfred (1814-1880). 143

156.     Sartoris, Adelaide Kemble (1815-1879). 143

157.     Sayce, Archibald Henry (1845-1933). 143

158.     Schroeder, Seaton (1849-1922). 144

159.     Schweinfurth, Georg August (1836-1925). 144

160.     Scully, William (?-1885). 144

161.     Seymour, Walter Richard (1838-1922). 145

162.     Seymour, Sir Edward Hobart (1840-1929). 145

163.     Shand, Alexander Innes (1832-1907). 145

164.     Shaw, Dr. Henry Norton (?-1868). 145

165.     Shelley, Major Edward (1827-1890). 147

166.     Shepheard, Samuel (1816-1866). 148

167.     Sheridan, Richard Brinsley (1806?-1888). 148

168.     Skene, James Henry (1812-1886). 148

169.     Sladen, Douglas Brooke Wheelton (1856-1947). 149

170.     Smalley, George Washburn (1833-1916). 149

171.     Smith, Laura A. 149

172.     Smith, William Robertson (1846-1894). 149

173.     Smithers, Leonard (1861-1907). 150

174.     Soldene, Emily (1838-1912). 151

175.     Speke, John Hanning (1827-1864). 151

176.     Spencer, Walter Thomas (1863-1936). 157

177.     Stanley, Henry Morton (1841-1904). 157

178.     Steinhaüser, Dr. John Frederick (1814-1866). 157

179.     Stevenson, Frederick James (1835-1926). 159

180.     Stisted, Georgiana Martha (1846?-1903). 159

181.     Stocks, John Ellerton (1822-1854). 160

182.     Stoker, Abraham “Bram” (1847-1912). 161

183.     Stokes, Sir John (1825–1902). 162

184.     Stroyan, William (1825?-1855). 162

185.     Swinburne, Algernon (1837-1909). 163

186.     Sykes, Colonel William Henry (1790-1872). 170

187.     Thorndike, Rev. Charles Faunce (1821-1915). 170

188.     Tinsley, William (1831-1902). 171

189.     Tootal, Albert (1838?-1893). 172

190.     Tussaud, John Theodore (1858-1943). 172

191.     Vámbéry, Ármin (1832-1913). 175

192.     Viator. 175

193.     Villiers, Frederick (1851-1922). 175

194.     Vizetelly, Henry Richard (1820-1894). 176

195.     Whistler, James McNeill (1834-1903). 176

196.     Wilson, Charles Rivers (1831-1916). 177

197.     Wilson, Frank. 177

198.     Wood, Sir Charles (1800–1885). 178

199.     Wright, William [Salih] (1837-1899). 178

200.     Wylde, William Henry (1819-1909). 179

Sources. 180

Archives. 180

Microfilms. 181

Electronic Collections. 181

Bibliography. 182

Books by Richard Burton. 182

Books by Isabel Burton. 184

Auction Catalogues. 184

General. 185

Plates. 188

The East African Expedition. 189

Trieste. 214

Credits. 224

 



 

List of Illustrations.

Figure 1.  Allen's Indian Mail Dec. 6th 1843. 13

Figure 2.  Calling Card of H. S. Ashbee. 19

Figure 3.  Mining Concession granted to Burton and Teixeira. 42

Figure 4.  Wilfrid Scawen Blunt. 78

Figure 5.  Dr. F. Grenfell Baker. 79

Figure 6.  Samuel Selig de Kusel. 80

Figure 7.  Earl of Dunraven. 81

Figure 8.  Frank Wilson. 82

Figure 9.  James Hain Friswell. 83

Figure 10.  Joseph Dalton Hooker. 84

Figure 11.  Sir Harry Johnston. 85

Figure 12.  Colonel Chaillé Long. 86

Figure 13.  Edward Thomas McCarthy. 87

Figure 14.  Justin McCarthy. 88

Figure 15.  The Tichborne Claimant. 89

Figure 16.  Ouida. 90

Figure 17.  Albert Leighton Rawson. 91

Figure 18.  Frederick James Stevenson. 92

Figure 19.  Algernon Swinburne. 93

Figure 20.  Cecil John Rhodes and protégés, including Alex. Colquhoun. 94

Figure 21.  Gustav Mann. 95

Figure 22.  Julian Arnold. 96

Figure 23.  Armin Vambery. 97

Figure 24.  John Passmore Edwards. 98

Figure 25.  Verney Lovett Cameron. 99

Figure 26.  Lord Houghton (Monckton Milnes). 100

Figure 27.  John Hanning Speke. 101

Figure 28.  Francis Galton. 102

Figure 29.  Lord Redesdale (Bertram Mitford). 103

Figure 30.  Charles Francis Tyrwhitt Drake. 104

Figure 31.  Dr. Norton Shaw of the RGS. 105

Figure 32.  Speke Memorial Fund. 156

Figure 33.  The Burton Exhibit at Madame Tussaud’s. 174

Figure 34.  Zanzibar Town from the Sea. 190

Figure 35.  Fuga, sketched by Burton. 190

Figure 36.  Pangany Falls, sketched by Burton. 191

Figure 37.  Pemba Island, sketched by Burton. 192

Figure 38.  Mombas, sketched by Burton. 193

Figure 39.  Shamba, sketched by Burton. 193

Figure 40.  The Town of Wasim, sketched by Burton. 194

Figure 41.  Fort of Tongway, sketched by Burton. 194

Figure 42.  The Hills of Usumbara, sketched by Burton. 195

Figure 43.  East Coast Scene, sketched by Burton. 195

Figure 44.  A 'Savage of the Nyika', sketched by Burton. 196

Figure 45.  The Ivory Porter. 197

Figure 46.  Party of Wak'Hutu Women. 197

Figure 47.  The Wazaramo Tribe. 198

Figure 48.  A Village in Khutu.  The Silk Cotton Tree. 199

Figure 49.  Sycamore in the Dhun of Ugogi. 199

Figure 50.  Explorers in East Africa. 200

Figure 51.  The East African Ghauts. 200

Figure 52.  Majiya W'heta, or the Jetting Fountain in K'hutu. 201

Figure 53.  Ugogo. 201

Figure 54.  Usagara Mountains, seen from Ugogo. 202

Figure 55.  View in Unyamwezi. 202

Figure 56.  Ladies' Smoking Party. 203

Figure 57.  African House Building. 204

Figure 58.  A Village Interior in the Land of the Moon.  Utanta or Loom(l).  Iwanza, or public house (r). 204

Figure 59.  Navigation on the Tanganyika Lake. 205

Figure 60.  View in Usagara. 205

Figure 61.  My Tembe near the Tanganyika. 206

Figure 62.  Head Dresses of Wanyamwezi. 206

Figure 63.  African Types. 207

Figure 64.  Snay Bin Amir's House. 208

Figure 65.  Saydumi. a Native of Uganda. 208

Figure 66.  Mgongo Thembo, or the Elephant's Back. 209

Figure 67.  Jiwe la Mkoa, the Round Rock. 209

Figure 68.  The Basin of Maroro. 210

Figure 69.  The Basin of Kisanga. 210

Figure 70.  Rufita Pass in Usagara. 211

Figure 71.  The Ivory Porter, the Cloth Porter, and Woman, in Usagara. 211

Figure 72.  African Implements. 212

Figure 73.  Gourds. 212

Figure 74.  A Mnyamwezi (l).  A Mhela (r). 213

Figure 75.  The Bull-headed Mabruki (l).  African Standing Position (r). 213

Figure 76.  Elephant Rock. 214

Figure 77.  The Smoking Divan in Villa Gosleth, Trieste, by Albert Letchford. 215

Figure 78.  Room in Villa Gosleth, Trieste, by Albert Letchford. 216

Figure 79.  Isabel Burton’s Study in Villa Gosleth, by Albert Letchford. 217

Figure 80.  Isabel Burton’s Bedroom in Villa Gosleth, by Albert Letchford. 217

Figure 81.  View of the Bay of Trieste from Villa Gosleth, by Albert Letchford. 218

Figure 82.  Villa Gosleth, Trieste, scene by Albert Letchford. 218

Figure 83.  View from Villa Gosleth, Trieste, by Albert Letchford. 219

Figure 84.  View of the Bay of Trieste by Albert Letchford. 219

Figure 85.  Burton, Letchford, and Isabel in the Dining Room at Trieste. 220

Figure 86.  Alternative view of the dining room, with Burton, Letchford and Isabel. 220

Figure 87.  Drawing Room, Villa Gosleth, Trieste. 221

Figure 88.  The study, Villa Gosleth, Trieste. 222

Figure 89.  Villa Gosleth, Trieste, in the 1830s, from an old print. 222

Figure 90.  Burton in the 1880s. 223

Figure 91.  Portrait of Burton by Madame de Benvenuti, Trieste, 1879. 224

 


 

Glossary.

 

ALS:

Autograph letter signed.  Used here to mean an original handwritten document, as opposed to a photocopy or typed/printed transcript.

DNB:

Dictionary of National Biography.

FO:

Foreign Office.

FRS:

Fellow of the Royal Society.

IB:

Isabel Burton.

JRGS:

Journal of the Royal Geographical Society.

Life:

Isabel Burton (1893).

PRGS:

Proceedings of the Royal Geographic Society.

RFB:

Sir Richard Francis Burton.

RGS:

Royal Geographical Society.

QK:

Quentin Keynes.

WRO:

Wiltshire and Swindon Record Office.


 


Chronology

Date

RFB’s Location

Event

1820/03/02

Captain Joseph Netterville Burton marries  Martha Baker in St. James’ Church, London.

1821/03/19

England

Richard Francis Burton is born at Torquay.

1823/01/18

England

Maria Catherine Eliza Burton is born at Barham House.

1824/07/03

England

Edward Joseph Netterville Burton is born.

1831/03/20

England

Isabel Arundell is born in London at 14 Great Cumberland Place.

1840/11/19

England

RFB is admitted into Trinity College Oxford.

1842/03/

England

RFB Leaves Oxford.

1842/06/18

England

Granted a commission in the Army of the East India Company.

1842/06/18

England

Sails for Bombay.

1842/10/28

India

Arrives in Bombay.

1842/11/15

India

Posted to 18th Native Infantry.  Stationed in Garoda in Gujerat.

1843/03/22

India

Passes Hindustani in Bombay.

1843/05/05

India

Appointed interpreter to corps.

1843/08/22

India

Passes Gujerati at Bombay.

1843/10/28

India

Passes Mahratta at Bombay.

1844/01/01

India

Leaves Bombay for Karachi.  Moves from Karachi to Gharra.

1844/10/22

India

Appointed to the Scinde Survey as second assistant surveyor.

1844/12/10

India

Scinde Survey sets of for Fulayhi.

1845/04/

India

Scinde Survey returns to Karachi.

1845/05/02

India

Appointed interpreter to the 18th Native Infantry.

1846/01/26

India

Promoted to Lieutenant.

1847/02/20

India

Travels to Goa on sick leave.

1847/10/12

India

Appointed assistant to the Scinde Survey in Calcutta.

1847/10/23

India

Passes Persian.

1847/11/12

India

Awarded 1000 rupees for his linguistic and other accomplishments.

1848/09/07

India

Passes Sindi.

1848/12/13

India

Passes Punjabee.

1849/03/30

India

Travels back to Europe on sick leave.

1849/09/05

England

RFB arrives in England.  Stays with the Bagshaws.

1849/12/?

Italy

Travels to Pisa to join family.

1850/03/?

England

Returns to England.

1850/06/?

England

Stays at Dover with sister Maria.

1851/03/17

England

Goa and the Blue Mountains published by Richard Bentley.

1851/04/

France

RFB relocates to Boulogne.

1851/09/30

France

Scinde: or, the Unhappy Valley published by Richard Bentley.

1851/10/17

France

Sindh and the Races the Inhabit the Valley of the Indus published by W. H. Allen.

1852/

France

RFB meets Isabel Arundell at Boulogne.

1852/06/

France

Falconry in the Valley of the Indus published by John van Voorst.

1853/04/04

England

RFB leaves Southampton on the Bengal for Alexandria, on an expedition to explore Arabia sponsored by the RGS.

1853/04/17

Egypt

RFB arrives at Alexandria in the Bengal.  Stays with Larking at the Sycamores.

1853/04/

Egypt

RFB leaves Alexandria, late in the month, for Cairo.

1853/06/

Egypt

At Cairo en route to Arabia.

1853/06/03

Egypt

Complete System of Bayonet Exercise published by William Clowes.

1853/07/11

Arabia

RFB is at Aqaba

1853/08/

Arabia

RFB is at Medinah

1853/09/01

Arabia

RFB joins caravan from Medinah to Mecca

1853/09/10

Arabia

RFB is at Mecca.

1853/09/20?

Arabia

RFB leaves Mecca for Jeddah.

1853/09/26

Arabia

Departs for Suez from Jeddah.

1853/10/03

Egypt

Arrives at Suez en route to Cairo.

1853/10/16

Egypt

RFB is at Cairo.

1854/01/16

Egypt

Leaves Cairo for Suez with Didier and Hamilton.

1854/02/07?

Aden

RFB arrives at Aden and spends two weeks with Steinhaueser.

1854/02/21

India

RFB Arrives at Bombay, and befriends Lumsden.  He is employed by the Political Department.

1854/06/20

India

RFB leaves Bombay for Aden with permission to conduct an expedition of exploration in the interior of Somali-land, overland to Zanzibar.

1854/10/29

Aden

RFB Leaves Aden for Harar.

1854/12/10

Somalia

Martha Burton (mother of RFB) dies of heart disease.

1855/01/03

Somalia

RFB returns to Aden from Harar via Berberah.

1855/04/05

Aden

RFB leaves Aden for Berberah to initiate the overland journey to Zanzibar.

1855/04/29

Somalia

Early morning attack at Berberah in which Stroyan is killed, and RFB and Speke are badly wounded.

1855/06/28

Crimea

RFB Arrives in Crimea from London via Boulogne and joins Beatson’s Horse two weeks later.

1855/07/03

Crimea

Personal Narrative of a Pilgrimage to El-Medinah and Meccah Vol. 1 and Vol. 2 published by Longmans.

1855/10/18

Crimea

Leaves Therapeia for England with General Beatson after his recall.

1856/01/19

England

Pilgrimage Vol. 3 published by Longmans.

1856/06/19

England

First Footsteps in East Africa published by Longman.

1856/10/03

England

RFB, appointed by the RGS to lead an expedition to discover the possible sources of the White Nile, leaves England accompanied by Speke for the overland route to Bombay.

1856/11/06

Egypt

At Shepheard’s Hotel in Cairo.

1856/11/23

India

Arrives at Bombay.

1856/12/01

India

Departs Bombay for Zanzibar.

1856/12/18

East Africa

Arrives at Zanzibar.

1857/01/10

East Africa

Leaves Zanzibar for coasting voyages.

1857/06/27

East Africa

Leaves the coast for the interior.

1857/07/06

East Africa

Joseph Netterville Burton dies at age 74.

1858/02/13

East Africa

Burton and Speke reach Ujiji on Lake Tanganyika.

1858/07/10

East Africa

Speke leaves Taborah/Kazeh for the Nyanza.

1858/08/25

East Africa

Speke returns from the Nyanza.

1859/02/02

East Africa

Burton and Speke reach the coast of Konduchi.

1859/03/04

East Africa

Return to Zanzibar.

1859/03/22

East Africa

Burton and Speke leave Zanzibar for Aden.

1859/04/16

Aden

Burton and Speke arrive at Aden.

1859/04/?

Aden

Speke leaves Aden for Suez.

1859/04/19

Aden

Speke arrives in England.

1859/04/28

Aden

RFB leaves Aden for Suez.

1859/05/20

England

RFB arrives in England.

1860/04/21

England

Leaves Liverpool for North America via Halifax.

1860/08/25

USA

RFB arrives in Salt Lake City.

1860/06/21

USA

Lake Regions published by Longmans.

1860/12/31

England

Arrives back in England from Panama.

1861/01/22

England

RFB and Isabel Arundell are married at Royal Bavarian Chapel, Warwick Street, London.

1861/03

England

Appointed Consul at Fernando Po.

1861/08/24

England

Departs for Fernando Po on ASS Blackland, Captain English.

1861/09/27

West Africa

Arrives in Fernando Po.

1861/09/29

West Africa

Departs for Oil Rivers.

1861/10/02

West Africa

Returns to F. Po.

1861/10/10

West Africa

Departs F. Po on HMS Arrogant.

1861/10/14

West Africa

Arrives in Lagos. 

1861/10/29

West Africa

Departs Lagos on HMS Prometheus for Ogun River Abeokuta.

1861/11/07

West Africa

City of the Saints published by Longmans.

1861/11/08

West Africa

Leaves Abeokuta for Lagos.

1861/11/21?

West Africa

Departs Lagos on HMS Bloodhound to Oil Rivers incl. Brass River.

1861/11/27

West Africa

Removed from Army List.

1861/12/01

West Africa

At Brass River

1861/12/05

West Africa

At Bonny River.

1861/12/13

West Africa

Departs Brass River, arrives at F. Po that day.

1861/12/17

West Africa

Departs with Saker, Smith, Calvo to climb Cameroons Mountains, where they meet Gustav Mann.

1862/02/04

West Africa

Returns to F. Po from Cameroons.

1862/03/15

West Africa

Departs F. Po. On HMS Griffon for Gorilla-land.

1862/04/22

West Africa

Departs from Londo River for F. Po.

1862/04/25

West Africa

Arrives at F. Po.

1862/05/01

West Africa

Departs for Old Calabar River in HMS Griffon to investigate assault.

1862/05/04

West Africa

At Duketown in Delta.

1862/05/20?

West Africa

Returns to F. Po.

1862/07/31

West Africa

Leaves F. Po. for the Benin River to investigate an attack.

1862/08/19

West Africa

Enters Benin City after visiting Belzoni’s grave.

1862/09/04

West Africa

Arrives back at F. Po.

1862/09/11

West Africa

Leaves F. Po. for Batonga.

1862/09/18

West Africa

Leaves the coast to return to F. Po. after climbing Elephant Mountain.

1862/12/04

Tenerife

RFB anchors off Tenerife but yellow fever prevents his landing.

1862/12/02

England

RFB arrives at Liverpool.

1863/01/

England

First meeting of the Anthropological Society, addressed by Hunt.

1863/01/24

England

Burtons leave for Madeira.

1863/02/02

Madeira

Burtons arrive at Madeira.

1863/04?

Tenerife

RFB leaves Tenerife for F. Po.  Isabel leaves for England.

1863/05/18

West Africa

RFB arrives in Dahome.

1863/06/17

West Africa

RFB leaves Dahome.

1863/06/

West Africa

RFB arrives in F. Po.

1863/07/29

West Africa

RFB leaves for Angola.

1863/08/22

West Africa

RFB leaves Angola for the mouth of the Congo.

1863/08/30

West Africa

RFB lands at Banana Point near the mouth of the Congo.

1863/09/28

West Africa

RFB leaves Banana Point for F. Po.

1863/10/19

West Africa

Wanderings in West Africa anonymously published by Tinsley.

1863/10/24

West Africa

RFB arrives at F. Po.

1863/11/29

West Africa

RFB departs F. Po to Dahome via Lagos.

1863/12/14

West Africa

Abeokuta and the Camaroons Mountains published by Tinsley.

1863/12/16.

West Africa

Speke’s Journal of the Discovery of the Source of the Nile (Edinburgh: Blackwood) is published.

1864/02/?

West Africa

RFB leaves Dahome.

1864/03/23

West Africa

RFB arrives at Bonny River.

1864/04/03

West Africa

RFB is at F. Po.

1864/05/07

Tenerife

RFB is at Tenerife.

1864/06/11

Tenerife

RFB is still at Tenerife.

1864/07/30

Tenerife

Speke’s What Led to the Discovery of the Source of the Nile (Edinburgh: Blackwood) is published.

1864/08/12

England

RFB arrives in Liverpool.

1864/09/15

England

Speke dies of a self-inflicted gunshot wound near Bath.

1864/09/

England

Burton is appointed Consul at Santos, Brazil.

1864/09/27

England

Mission to Gelele 2 vols. published by Tinsley.

1864/11/26

England

Nile Basin published by Tinsley Brothers.

1865/01/13

England

Stone Talk published by Hardwicke.

1865/04/

England

The Guide-book. A Pictorial Pilgrimage to Mecca and Medina published by William Clowes, to accompany Royal Polytechnic Show.

1865/04/04

England

“Farewell Dinner for Captain Burton” held in London by the Anthropological Society.

1865/05/09

England

The Burtons leave England for Portugal.

1865/06/05

Portugal

Wit and Wisdom of West Africa is published by Tinsley.

1865/06/13

Portugal

RFB leaves Lisbon for Santos, Brazil via Rio.  Isabel returns to London.

1865/09/08

S. America

RFB arrives at Santos.

1865/09/09

S. America

Isabel leaves England for Santos, Brazil.

1865/09/27

S. America

Isabel arrives in Recife, Brazil.

1865/11/

S. America

RFB leaves Santos for the mouth of the Rio Grande.

1866/01/16

S. America

RFB arrives back in São Paulo from the mines.

1866/03/

S. America

RFB leaves Santos for the interior of Sāo Paulo Province.

1866/05/

S. America

RFB returns to Sāo Paulo from the interior.

1866/08/05

S. America

RFB climbs the sugarloaf mountain of the island of Sāo Sebastiāo

1866/08/12

S. America

RFB returns to Sāo Paulo from Sāo Sebastiāo

1867/06/12

S. America

Burtons leave Rio for San Fran. River via Minas Geraes.

1867/08/07

S. America

RFB sets off on a raft down the San Fran. River to the sea.

1867/08/25

S. America

Isabel sets off for Rio.

1868/01/?

S. America

RFB returns to Rio.

1868/04/?

S. America

RFB is seriously ill.

1868/07/31

S. America

RFB goes on sick leave, departs Santos for South American tour.  Isabel departs Santos for England.

1868/08/06

S. America

RFB arrives at Montevideo.

1868/08/22

S. America

RFB inspects the Paraguayan war battlefields at Humaita.

1868/09/01

S. America

Isabel arrives back in England.

1868/09/05

S. America

RFB arrives in Buenos Aires, meets Arthur Orton and Wilfrid Blunt

1868/12/03

S. America

RFB is appointed Consul at Damascus.

1868/12/

S. America

RFB Crosses the Andes with William Maxwell to Los Andes.

1869/01/?

S. America

RFB is in Santiago.

1869/01/?

S. America

RFB and Maxwell travel north to Peru.

1869/03/?

S. America

RFB and Maxwell are in Lima, Peru.

1869/03/29

S. America

RFB returns to Buenos Aires and receives appointment letter.

1869/04/05

S. America

RFB leaves by ship, up the Parana river, to the battlefields again.

1869/04/10

S. America

Highlands of the Brazil 2 vols. published by Tinsley.

1869/04/13

S. America

RFB is in Asunción.

1869/04/

S. America

RFB arrives back at Buenos Aires.

1869/04/26

S. America

RFB departs Buenos Aires for Rio.

1869/05/

S. America

RFB departs Rio for England via Lisbon.

1869/06/01

England

RFB arrives back in England.

1869/07/24

France

RFB arrives at Vichy with Swinburne.

1869/08/09

France

Isabel arrives at Vichy.

1869/10/

Italy

RFB leaves Brindisi for Damascus.

1869/10/03

Syria

RFB arrives in Damascus.

1869/10/29

Syria

RFB climbs Mount Hermon.

1869/12

Syria

RFB visits the eastern Hauran.

1869/12/16

Syria

Isabel leaves England for Damascus.

1870/01/01

Syria

Vikram and the Vampire published by Longman.

1870/02/12

Syria

Letters from the Battlefields of Paraguay published by Tinsley.

1871/08/18

Syria

RFB leaves Damascus for England after being recalled.

1871/09/18

England

RFB arrives in England.

1871/09/30

England

Isabel leaves the Levant for England.

1871/12/13

England

RFB testifies at the trial of Arthur Orton, the ’Tichborne Claimant’.

1872/01/06

England

Zanzibar 2 vols. published by Tinsley.

1872/06/04

Scotland

Sails for Iceland from Granton.

1872/06/15?

Iceland

Unexplored Syria 2 vols. published by Tinsley.

1872/09/05

Scotland

RFB Arrives back in Edinburgh.

1872/10/24

England

RFB leaves England for Trieste.

1872/11/18

Austria

Isabel leaves England for Trieste.

1872/12/06

Austria

Burtons arrive together at Trieste, having met in Venice.

1873/04/01

Italy

Burtons leave Trieste for Rome via Ancona and Loreto.

1873/04/25

Italy

Burtons arrive back at Trieste via Florence and Bologna.

1873/04/27

Austria

Burtons arrive in Vienna for the Great Exhibition.

1873/05/?

Austria

Burtons arrive back in Trieste from Vienna.

1873/05/?

Austria

Charles Tyrwhitt-Drake stops over in Trieste en route to the Levant.

1873/09/

Austria

The Lands of Cazembe published by John Murray.

1874/05/?

Austria

RFB climbs the Schneeburg.

1874/05/14

Austria

Burtons return to Trieste.

1874/05/17

Austria

RFB is seriously ill with a tumour of the groin.

1874/06/23

Austria

Charles Tyrwhitt-Drake dies of fever in Jerusalem.

1874/09/21

Austria

Burtons return to Trieste after convalescing.

1874/12/08

Austria

Isabel leaves Trieste for England.

1875/04/27

Austria

RFB leaves Trieste for England on sick leave.

1875/05/12

England

RFB is in England.

1875/07/05

Iceland

RFB leaves from Leith for Iceland

1875/07/24

Iceland

RFB returns from Iceland.

1875/09/28?

England

Ultima Thule published by Nimmo.

1875/12/04

England

Burtons leave England for Trieste.

1876/01/

Austria

Burtons leave Trieste for India via Suez.

1876/02/

India

Two Trips to Gorilla Land published by Sampson Low.

1876/02/02

India

Burtons arrive at Bombay.

1876/06/18

Austria

Burton arrive back at Trieste via Suez, Cairo and Alexandria.

1876/10/30?

Austria

Etruscan Bologna published by Smith & Elder.

1877/03/03

Austria

RFB leaves Trieste for Egypt and Midian.

1877/04/06

Egypt

Sind Revisited published by Bentley.

1877/05/06

Egypt

Leaves Alexandria for Trieste.

1877/10/19

Austria

Leaves Trieste for Egypt.

1878/04/22

Egypt

RFB returns to Cairo after Midian trip.

1878/05/02?

Egypt

The Gold Mines of Midian is published by Kegan Paul.

1878/05/10

Egypt

Burtons leave Cairo for Trieste.

1878/05/15

Austria

Arrive in Trieste.

1878/07/06

Austria

Burtons leave Trieste for England.

1878/08/19

Ireland

At the British Association in Dublin.

1878/11/12

England

Maria Stisted, niece of RFB, dies of TB.

1879/04/

England

RFB leaves England for Dresden, Isabel leaves for Paris

1879/04/

Austria

Isabel has bad fall in Paris Hotel.

1879/04/14

Austria

The Land of Midian (Revisited) 2 vols. is published by Kegan Paul.

1879/12/05

Austria

RFB leaves Trieste for Egypt.

1880/01/02

Egypt

RFB meets Gordon in Cairo.

1880/02/

Egypt

Isabel leaves Trieste from London to seek medical treatment.

1880/04/15

Egypt

Isabel meets Gordon in London.

1880/05/03

Egypt

RFB is attacked by a gang in Cairo.

1880/05/

Egypt

RFB leaves Egypt for Trieste.

1880/05/29.

Austria

RFB arrives in Trieste from Egypt.  Isabel arrives in Trieste from London.

1880/05/29

Austria

Isabel returns to Trieste from London.

1880/07/

Austria

Burtons leave Trieste for Monfalcone, Tyrol.

1880/08/

Austria

Burtons are at Oberammergau.

1880/09/

Austria

Burtons arrive back in Trieste.

1880/12/

Austria

Os Lusiadas (The Lusiads) 2 vols. trans. Burton published by Quaritch.

1881/09/15

Italy

RFB and VL Cameron attend Geographical Congress in Venice.

1881/10/

Austria

Camoens Life and Lusiads 2 Vols. published by Quaritch.

1881/11/18

Austria

RFB leaves Trieste for Gold Coast via Venice.

1882/01/08

Madeira

VL Cameron joins Burton in Madeira.

1882/01/25

West Africa

Burton and Cameron arrive at the Gold Coast.

1882/03/28

West Africa

Burton leaves Gold Coast for Madeira.

1882/05/15

West Africa

Isabel arrives in London from Trieste

1882/05/20

England

RFB and Cameron arrive in London.

1882/07/15

England

RFB leaves London for Trieste via Paris and Marienbad.

1882/07/31

Austria

Burtons arrive in Trieste.

1882/11/03

Austria

RFB leaves Trieste for the Sinai in search of Palmer.

1882/11/08

Egypt

RFB arrives at Alexandria.

1882/12/10

Austria

RFB arrives back at Trieste.

1883/01/

Austria

To the Gold Coast for Gold published by Chatto & Windus.

1884/02/

Austria

The Book of the Sword published by Chatto & Windus.

1884/06/04

Austria

RFB leaves Trieste for Vienna and Marienbad etc.

1884/09

Austria

Burtons return to Trieste.

1884/11/

Austria

Camoens: The Lyricks 2 vols. published by Quaritch.

1885/05/19

Austria

Burtons leave Trieste for London.

1885/08/11

England

Monckton Milnes (Lord Houghton) dies.

1885/09/12

England

Volume 1 of the Arabian Nights is sent to subscribers.

1885/11/

England

RFB leaves for Tangier.

1886/02/

Algeria

Iracema published by Bickers and Sons.

1886/02/16

Algeria

RFB is awarded a KCMG.

1886/04/23

Austria

Burtons return to Trieste from Tangiers.

1886/06/04

Austria

Burtons leave Trieste for London.

1887/01/06

England

Burtons leave Folkestone for Paris and then Cannes.

1887/02/26

France

RFB has a heart attack in Cannes.

1887/04/?

Austria

Burtons return to Trieste.

1887/10/15

Austria

Dr. F. Grenfell Baker replaces Dr. Ralph Leslie as Burton’s personal physician.

1887/11/22

Austria

Burtons leave Trieste for resort at Abbazia.

1888/03

Austria

The last volume of the Supplemental Nights is completed.

1888/05

Austria

Burtons leave Trieste for England via Switzerland and Paris.

1888/07/18

England

Burtons arrive in England, at Folkestone.

1888/10/26

England

Burtons leave Folkestone for Paris via Boulogne.

1888/11/02

France

Burtons leave Paris for Geneva.

1889/03/12

Austria

Burtons arrive back at Trieste.

1889/07/01

Austria

Burtons leave for Adelsberg.

1889/09

Austria

Burtons return to Trieste.

1889/11/15

Austria

Burtons leave Trieste for Tunis and Algiers.

1889/12/20

Tunisia

Burtons arrive at Tunis.

1890/03/

Austria

Burtons return to Trieste.

1890/07/01

Austria

Burtons leave Trieste for Switzerland.

1980/08/08

Switzerland

Burtons meet HM Stanley at Maloja in the Engadine.

1890/08/

Switzerland

Priapeia is published for private subscribers.

1890/09/01

Switzerland

Burtons leave Maloja for Trieste.

1890/09/07

Austria

Burtons arrive back at Trieste.

1890/10/20

Austria

RFB dies at Trieste of a heart attack.

1893/07/12

Isabel’s The Life of Captain Sir Richard F. Burton is published by Chapman and Hall.

1895/01/29

Edward Joseph Netterville Burton dies in Springfield Asylum, Wandsworth.

1896/03/22

Isabel Burton dies of ovarian cancer in London.

 

Figure 1.  Allen's Indian Mail Dec. 6th 1843.

Title: plate

 



 

Register: A-J.

1.    Abraham, Walter.

A lithographer, who was at one time superintendent of government printing.[2] He ran his own business, advertising himself as a “Copper-Plate Engraver and Printer, Die-Sinker and Embosser. Both in English and Oriental Characters, FRERE LITHOGRAPHIC PRESS, 2 Meadow Street, Bombay.”  He was listed as insolvent on August 28, 1873 in the London Gazette of 26 September 1873.  His important reminiscence of Burton, who he had known in the 1840s, is a rarity from that early period, and appears in full in Volume 1.

2.    Adye, Major-General Sir John (1819-1900).

A British soldier, from a military family.  He served in the Crimean War and in the Indian Mutiny, eventually rising to General.  He was Governor of Gibraltar from 1883-6, and wrote several books of memoirs based on his military experiences.  He met Burton in Trieste in the late 1870s and left a brief reminiscence—“I remember the Chief's annoyance at being made the object of Lady Burton's attentions at the railway station.  She insisted on presenting him with a gigantic bouquet, which I am afraid he threw out of the window as soon as the train left the station”.[3]

3.    Arbuthnot, Forster Fitzgerald (1833-1901).

An Indian Civil Servant, born in Bombay.  He was educated privately in Germany and Switzerland and then trained for the Indian Civil Service at the East India College in Haileybury.  His father Sir Robert Keith Arbuthnot (1801-1873) had also been a Civil Servant in India (1819-1838).  His mother Anne Fitzgerald was the daughter of Field Marshal Sir John Forster FitzGerald, from whom his first name, frequently misspelled “Foster”, was derived.[4]  He went out to India in 1853 and stayed there until 1878, rising to Collector of Bombay, in charge of tax assessment.  His father had also been a collector and magistrate.

Arbuthnot met Burton in India, probably around 1854, and they became close friends.  Burton affectionately called him “Bunny”.  When the Burtons visited India in 1876, they were hosted by Arbuthnot in Bombay.  “Mr. F. F. Arbuthnot drove us with his own team out to Bandora, about twelve miles from Bombay, where he has a charming bungalow in a wild spot close to the sea, and where one can get a little quiet and fresh air.”[5]  After Arbuthnot returned to England in 1878, where he lived at Upper House Court, Guildford, they often exchanged visits in England and Trieste: “Arbuthnot’s visit has quite set me up, like a whiff of London in the Pontine marshes of Trieste. He goes to-day, d--- the luck! but leaves us hopes of meeting during the summer in Switzerland or thereabouts. He is looking the picture of health and we shall return him to town undamaged.”[6]  He dedicated Volume 3 of the Nights to Arbuthnot, “whose friendship has lasted nearly a third of a century”, and who had “lived long enough in the East and… observantly enough, to detect the pearl which lurks in the kitchen-midden, and to note that its lustre is not dimmed nor its value diminished by its unclean surroundings”.

Arbuthnot collaborated with Burton and Edward Rehatsek on editions of Eastern exotica and erotica, through the fictitious “Hindoo Kama Shastra Society”, which was financed by Arbuthnot, leading to the publication of The Kama Sutra (1883) and the Ananga Ranga (1885).  These were translated by Rehatsek (1819-1891), a Hungarian resident in India, with the assistance of Sanskrit experts in India, and revised and annotated by Arbuthnot and Burton.  They had tried to publish an earlier edition of the Ananga Ranga (Kama Shastra) in the early 1870s but were forced to withdraw it after objections from the printer, though some of those early copies survive.

H. S. Ashbee published the following detailed description from Arbuthnot of the process used by the Kama Shastra Society:[7]

The Kama Shastra, or the Hindoo Art of Love, (Ars amoris Indica) was printed in London in 1873.  In this work, at pages 46 and 59, references were made to the holy Sage Vatsyayana, and to his opinions.  On my return to India in 1874 I made enquiries about Vatsyayana and his works.  The pundits informed me that the Kama Sutra of Vatsyayana was now the standard work on love in Sanscrit literature, and that no Sanscrit library was supposed to be complete without a copy of it.  They added that the work was now very rare, and that the versions of the text differed considerably in different manuscripts, and the language in many of them was obscure and difficult.  It was necessary then first to prepare as complete and as correct a copy of the work as possible in Sanscrit, and after this had been accomplished, then to get it properly translated.  The first thing then to be done was to find a man competent to prepare the Sanscrit text, and after that a competent translator.  After some inquiry Dr. Bühler, now Sanscrit Professor in Vienna, but then employed in the Educational Department in Bombay, recommended to me the Pundit Bhugwuntlal Indraji.  This Pundit had already been frequently employed by Mr. James Fergusson, and Mr. James Burgess, in copying and translating for them writings found on copper plates, on stone boundaries, and in temples in many parts of India.  Not only had he been useful to the above named gentlemen, but to many others engaged in Indian archeology, and antiquities.  Last year he submitted a paper to the Oriental Congress held at Leyden in Holland, and the University there conferred on him the degree of Doctor of Letters, while the Royal Asiatic Society of London elected him as an honorary member.  The Pundit himself was unable to speak English fluently but understood it sufficiently, and after an interview I set him to work to compile a complete copy of the Kama Sutra of Vatsyayana in Sanscrit.  The copy of the text he had procured in Bombay being incomplete, the pundit wrote for other copies from Calcutta, Benares, and Jeypoor, and from these prepared a complete copy of the work.  With the aid then of another Brahman by name Shivaram Parshuram Bhide, then studying at the University of Bombay, and well acquainted both with Sanscrit and English, and now employed in the service of His Highness the Guicowar at Baroda, a complete translation of the above text was prepared and it is this transition which has now been printed and published in London, with the impress of Benares, 1883.  The pundits obtained great assistance in their translation from a commentary on the original work, which was called Jayamangla, or Sutralashya, and which is fully alluded to in the Introduction, page 10, to the Kama Sutra.

Without this commentary the translation would have been most difficult, if not impossible.  The original work is written in very old and difficult Sanscrit, and without the aid of the commentary it would have been in many places unintelligible.

Arbuthnot was active in the Royal Asiatic Society after his return to England, and published a number of works about Persia and the East, including Early Ideas. A group of Hindoo Stories (1881); Persian Portraits (1887); Arabic Authors (1890); The Rauzat-us-safa (1891); The Assemblies of Al Hariri (1898); and The Mysteries of Chronology (1900).[8]  He also wrote an unpublished Life of Balzac (1902).

4.    Arnold, Julian Tregenna Biddulph (1860-1945?).

An explorer and poet.  Son of Sir Edwin Arnold (1832-1904).  He was born 3 July 1860 at Framfield in Sussex. Toured the United States lecturing about his travels and connections.  It appears though that Arnold, who practiced for a while as a solicitor, was convicted of misusing trust funds. 

Old Bailey.  Old court.—Friday, January 25th, 1901.  Before Mr. Justice Will. … Julian Tregenna Biddulph Arnold pleaded guilty to that he, being a trustee of 6,246 6s.3d.  under the will of  John Domville Taylor, did convert and appropriate 1,000 of that money to his own use and benefit; also that, being a trustee of 933 4s.11d.  under the will of  William Hartopp Swain, did convert it to his own use and benefit; and, Thomas Boulton Sismey to conspiring with Arnold and other persons to cheat and defraud Jane Clarke of 14,000.—Arnold—Seven years' penal servitude in respect to the Taylor case, and three years' penal servitude in respect to the Swain case, to run consecutively.  Sismey—Fifteen months' hard labour.

Later he became an American.  He met Burton, who also knew his father, in Egypt around 1880, and left a brief reminiscence—“Restless and adventurous, contemptuous of convention, intolerant of restraint or discipline, as reckless of himself as of others, prone to engage in a quarrel upon the slightest provocation”.[9]

5.    Ashbee, Charles Robert (1863-1842).

A renowned architect and member of the ‘Arts and Crafts’ movement, born in London and educated at Cambridge.  He was the son of H. S. Ashbee (1834-1900)—see below.  In his memoirs Grannie (1939), he included an imaginative recollection of meeting Burton as a child at his father’s house (see Volume 3).  Since Burton first met his father in 1885 he would in fact have been 22 or so years old at the time.

6.    Ashbee, Henry Spencer (1834-1900).

A wealthy Victorian businessman with a parallel life as a renowned collector of pornography, on which he published pedantic tracts for bibliophiles as “Pisanus Fraxi, ”or “White Bee”: Index Librorum Prohibitorum (1877) Centuria Librorum Absconditorum (1879) and Catena Librorum Tacendorum (1885).  He is supposed by some to have been ‘Walter’, the author of My Secret Life, a swollen piece of many-volumed erotica in which the hero inseminates large swathes of the Victorian World.[10] 

Ashbee was only introduced to Burton as late as the 21st of June 1885, by F. F. Arbuthnot, over dinner with Burton’s old crony Henry Edward Vaux Bellamy and Sir Reginald MacDonald at the East India Club in St James’s Square.  Arbuthnot had earlier been introduced to Ashbee by Bellamy, on the 29th of May 1883, though Monckton Milnes had known him even longer, since the 5th of April 1878, and the sadist bibliophile Frederick Hankey was known to all of them—Ashbee had visited Hankey in the 1870s at his quarters in Paris, 2 Rue Laffite.  Ashbee wrote in his diary that Burton “impresses one at once as a very remarkable man, whose erudition is as vast as his knowledge of the world and of humanity”.[11]  They went on to Ashbee’s rooms at 4 Gray’s Inn Square, where his large collection of offbeat facetiae was kept for special viewings. 

Figure 2.  Calling Card of H. S. Ashbee.

Title: plate

Soon Burton was a guest at Ashbee’s select Tuesday evening gatherings at his house in Bedford Square, had been introduced to Baron de Cosson of the Kernoozers Club, and began to exchange letters[12] and ‘uncommon books’ with Ashbee.  On Burton’s return to England in 1886, they took a train and boat together to spent a July evening in Greenwich, accompanied by F. F. Arbuthnot and Sir Charles Wingfield.  Isabel innocently records a more conventional visit that September—“We had a dinner at Mr. and Mrs. Ashbee’s to say good-bye to Count Teleki before going to Africa, and I gave him a talisman.”[13]  In 1888 Burton was able to clarify for Leonard Smithers that “Pisanus Fraxus is H. S. Ashbee of 53 Bedford Square London.  I reviewed his Tunisia a few months ago.  He is a well-to-do merchant and has a fine collection of facetiae.”[14]

In 1888 Burton favourably reviewed Ashbee’s co-authored travel narrative Travels in Tunisia (1888) for the Academy,[15] describing his curious new friend merely as a ‘globe trotter.’  He especially liked the book’s ‘truly valuable’ and ‘exhaustive’ bibliography, ‘a boon and blessing to men’—perhaps a sly reference to Ashbee’s forte in more obscure fields.  Ashbee had already known of Burton’s fictitious Kama Shastra Society long before he met him, and had reviewed the Kama Sutra as well as the Nights.  The productions of the Kama Shastra Society—Ashbee had snared the exceptionally rare withdrawn first issue of Ananga Ranga from 1873—are given fulsome coverage in Index Librorum Prohibitorum (1877) and Catena Librorum Tacendorum (1885).  Ashbee had no trouble identifying the authors, Burton and Arbuthnot, by name.

7.    Ashby-Sterry, Joseph (1838-1917).

An English novelist, poet and contributor to Punch.  He knew Burton from the London clubland of the early to mid-1860s, and left a passing reminiscence—see Volume 2.

8.    Aubertin, John James (1818-1900).

An author, traveller and Spanish & Portuguese scholar, who was British-born but of Huguenot descent.  He was educated at King’s College, London and trained as a lawyer.  Later he was the Superintendent of the British-owned São Paulo Railway company, from 1860 to 1869, and a promoter of cotton cultivation in Brazil.  Aubertin met the Burtons in Brazil in the mid-1860s, and travelled in the interior with RFB.  Later he published his own translation of Camões’ Lusiads[16]—which Burton described as ‘workmanlike’—and travelled in Egypt with RFB in 1879-80.  He recalled his friendship with Burton in his memoirs of 1893, Wanderings & Wonderings.[17]  He was also a fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society, and had an extensive correspondence with Charles Darwin.  In Burton’s Camoens: Life and Lusiads Vol. 1 an autobiographical sketch by Aubertin appears on pp. 167 ff.

9.    Austin, Richard (1832-1899).

A Vice-Consul at Rio.  Burton met him soon after he arrived in 1865—“After the trial at the Custom House, where a pair of bags, the work of the great Poole, duly disappeared, I called at the British Consulate, and introduced myself to its actual tenant, Mr. Richard Austin, son of the respected chaplain of Pernam.  His twenty years’ experience of Brazil were invaluable.  We were inseparables for a month, and he accompanied me to Bahia.”[18]  Austin was also a member of the Anthropological Society, no doubt encouraged by Burton—see “The Extinction of Slavery in Brazil, from a practical point of view” by A. M. Perdigão Malheiro, translated by Richard Austin, F.A.S.L..[19]

10.          Babington, William.

A Captain in the Merchant Navy, and a trader in the Cameroons, where he stayed for extended periods.  He was Master of the Victory, Princess Royal, Moselle and other ships.  He was also a Chairman of the Court of Equity that attempted to placate the Old Calabar region, and a member of the RGS and the Anthropological Society.  Based at Bonny River, he knew Rev. Alfred Saker well.  His “Remarks on the general Description of the Trade on the West Coast of Africa” appeared in the Journal of the Royal Society of Arts in 1875.[20]

Babington met Burton on the West Coast of Africa, when Burton was Consul at Fernando Po, and got on well with him.  Writing to James Hunt, Burton recommended him: “Allow me to propose as a member of the Ethnological Society Mr. William Babington a gentleman in the Merchant Navy well known in these parts, and a friend of Sir W. Hooker.  His address is ‘Camaroons River’ and perhaps you will kindly let him have his ‘little bill’ ”.[21]

11.          Back, Sir George (1796–1878).

An officer in the Royal Navy, who saw action in the Peninsula Wars and explored the Arctic with Franklin in the early 1820s.  He later led an RGS expedition in 1833 to the Arctic to search for Captain Ross, during which he explored a great deal of new territory and experienced extreme conditions, but did not find Ross, who made it back to England on his own.  Back later returned on another journey to explore Hudson Bay.  He was awarded the RGS Gold Medal in 1837, knighted in 1839, and appointed an Admiral in 1857.  He was also the Vice-President of the RGS and a long-standing council member, and the author of Narrative of the Arctic Land Expedition to the Mouth of the Great Fish River, and along the Shores of the Arctic Ocean, in the Years 1833, 1834 and 1835 (London: John Murray, 1838) and, with Francis Galton, of the RGS guide Hints to Travellers (London: RGS, 1854).  Back was a notable painter and naturalist.  Burton, who knew him well through the RGS, formed a friendship with Back and kept up a correspondence with him—see Volume 1 and 2.

12.          Badger, George Percy (1815-1888).

A distinguished English Arabist and an ordained minister in the Church of England.  He was Political agent at Aden in 1854, serving on the staff of Brigadier William Marcus Coghlan, and published the standard work An English Arabic lexicon (1881).  In Burton’s Zanzibar (1872) Badger was described as “a certain Reverend gentleman, then chaplain at Aden, who had gained for himself the honourable epithet of Shaytan Abyaz, or White Devil”,[22] and associated with forces Burton blamed for thwarting his expedition to Somaliland.  Badger promptly wrote to Burton to emphasize that “never, under any circumstances, did I take any part whatsoever, directly or indirectly, in your Berberah Expedition”.  Badger also raised the issue of Burton’s Arabic Exam, which he had written at Aden before leaving for the interior, but which was ruled invalid by the Examination Committee in Bombay—“Outram asked me to preside and I positively declined.  Why? you will ask.  Well, I had heard you were very vindictive … Playfair sent your papers to me, and after looking over them, I sent them back to him with a note eulogizing your attainments and, if I remember rightly, remarking upon the absurdity of the Bombay Committee being made the judges of your proficiency, inasmuch as I did not believe that any of them possessed a tithe of the knowledge of Arabic which you did.”[23]  Moreover, “I was subsequently told that the Bombay authorities would not pass you because the Examination was informal, or contrary to rule—that you ought to have passed at Bombay.”[24]  After this conciliation, the two corresponded on friendly terms. Isabel recalled visiting Badger in 1879: “We also saw a great deal of Dr. Percy Badger, who was always delighted (and his wife too) to get hold of Richard.  Dr. Badger turned an old kitchen into a comfortable studio, and there we used to find him, working hard at his Dictionary.”[25]

13.          Bainton, George (1847-1925).

An English Congregationalist minister who corresponded widely with the leading authors and composers of his day, see Nigel Cross The Common Writer: Life in Nineteenth-Century Grub Street.[26]  He corresponded with both of the Burtons on “the art of authorship” and published their responses in his Art of Authorship (1891)—see Volume 3.

14.          Baker, Frederick Grenfell (1853-1930).

Burton’s personal physician during his last years in Trieste.  He was born on Lahore, the son of an Indian army officer.  He trained at St George’s Hospital and entered the Royal College of Surgeons in 1877.  He worked for the next ten years as the surgeon at the Poplar Hospital in London. He was also a keen amateur photographer and attempted to patent “Improvements in Photographic Cameras” in 1891.  The Burtons first met Baker at Cannes in 1887, where RFB had a heart attack.  Poor health had forced Baker to quit his London practice, so Isabel engaged him to replace the Canadian Dr. Ralph Leslie as Burton’s personal physician on October 17th 1887.  He was author of The Model Republic (1895) on Switzerland, which Burton had helped him find a printer for, through Leonard Smithers.  His photographs of the Burtons and their house in Trieste, and of the deathbed scenes there, have been widely-used, and he registered copyright for several of them.[27]  Reports circulated after Burton’s death that Baker was preparing a biography of Burton; however, he had fallen out with Isabel over her destruction of Burton’s manuscripts.  Baker left some important reminiscences of the Burtons—see Volume 3.

15.          Baker, Sir Samuel White (1821-1893).

A Nile explorer, born in London into a wealthy family of businessmen.  He was educated in England and in Germany, qualifying as an engineer.  In 1864 he discovered Lake Albert, travelling with his second wife Florence (1841-1916), whom he claimed to have rescued from a slave market in Vidin on the Danube in January 1859.  He set off in 1861, ostensibly to explore the Blue Nile, but after a year, having exhausted the possibilities that offered, swung North down to Khartoum, then South, up the While Nile and through the marshy Sud.  He reached Gondokoro, the last station on the river, in February 1863.  There he encountered the Speke and Grant expedition, who were travelling down river from Lake Victoria.  Speke—who had expected to find his official relief expedition, led by John Petherick, rather than Baker—suggested an exploration of the ‘Luta Nzige’, which his own expedition had bypassed.  Baker did, and named it Lake Albert—it turned out to be a contributor to the Nile in its own right.  He was knighted in 1866 for his Nile explorations, and was appointed the first Governor of Equatoria (1869-1873), preceding General Charles Gordon.  He retired to Devon in 1874, though he continued to visit Egypt. 

Baker was the author of many travel narratives, including The Albert N'Yanza 2 vols. (1866).  It is not known when he first met Burton—in 1863 Burton wrote to Henry Murray “Rot your Baker—what is B. to me?”—but they were certainly well acquainted by the mid-1870s, and Burton refers to him positively in his later books, e.g. “my friend Sir Samuel Baker”.[28]  He appears to have kept a neutral position in the Burton-Speke-Grant quarrel.

16.          Bancroft, Squire (1841-1926).

An English actor and theatre manager, eventually prospering in partnership with his wife Effie Marie Wilton.  They were well-connected and produced two volumes of memoirs.  They appear to have met the Burtons for the first time in Switzerland where they stayed at the same hotel at Maloja in the Engadine as Henry Morton Stanley.  They left a reminiscence of Burton which appears in Volume 3.

17.          Barth, Heinrich (1821-1865).

An African explorer (1850-1855) and linguist, from Hamburg, who joined and then completed a British Government expedition to explore Central North West Africa, crossing the Sahara twice.  He was the author of the 5 volume description of his travels Reisen und Entdeckungen in Nord- und Central-afrika in den Jahren 1849 bis 1855 (Gotha: J. Perthes, 1857-8) which was translated as Travels and Discoveries in North and Central Africa: being a Journal of an Expedition undertaken under the Auspices of H.B.M.’s Government, in the Years 1849–1855 (London: Longman, 1857-8).  Burton met him in person in London when planning his East African expedition and Barth corresponded with him, offering him advice about the lakes.  Burton was unimpressed with his advice—see volume 1.

18.          Barnard, Charles Inman (1850-1942).

An American reporter for the New York Tribune who was mostly based in France.  He was born in Boston, Mass. in1850 and died at Nice, France on May 11, 1942.[29]  Barnard met Burton in Cairo in the late 1870s and corresponded with him—see Volumes 2 and 3.

19.          Bates, Henry Walter (1825-1892).

An explorer and naturalist, from Leicester, who was largely self-educated.  He explored the Amazon between 1848 and 1850, in the company of Alfred Russel Wallace.  After Wallace left in 1850, Bates stayed on till 1859, before returning to England.  He later wrote a classic description of his explorations The Naturalist on the River Amazons (London: Murray, 1863) and provided the first accurate descriptions of adaptive mimicry in nature.  Elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1881, he was also active in the RGS as Assistant Secretary from 1864 until his death in 1892.  He had an extensive correspondence with Burton, with whom he was on good terms and knew well through the RGS—see Volume 2.

20.          Bellamy, Henry Edward Vaux (1837?-1889).

A businessman and murky figure in the underworld of Victorian sexual deviance, about whom little definite is known.  He may have been born in Hereford,[30]  and may have been the son of Edward Vaux Bellamy of Hereford, who had worked for the British Museum.  He was made a Fellow of the Anthropological Society in 1865, and lived then at 10 Duke Street, St James’s, London.  He may also have been a member of the Cannibal Club.  No doubt he joined the Anthropological Society through Burton’s influence, and he is listed as attending Burton’s “Farewell Dinner” in 1865, which sent RFB off to Brazil.

At his death Bellamy was listed, in a notice to the creditors of “Henry Edward Vaux Bellamy,” as a “Secretary of Public Companies”[31] giving the addresses 1-Adam Street, Adelphi and 57 Moorgate street.  He was listed previously in connection with a bewildering array of railway companies, for example as the “Secretary” of the “West London Extension Railway Company”[32] and as the “Chief Official” of the “Victoria Station and Pimlico Railway”,[33] and others, including the “Calais Tramway”, the “Vicksburg, Shrieveport (sic) & Pacific” etc.  There was some continuity at least: in 1861 he was listed as Secretary to the “Victoria Station and Pimlico Railway”, at Great-George Street, Westminster.[34]

Bellamy was associated with the Studholme Hodgson / C. Duncan Cameron / Fred Hankey set referred to in Burton’s correspondence with Monckton Milnes.  “I left Cameron drunk and Bellamy half sober” (1861/08/28).  “Remember me with love to the amiable trio Hodgson, Bellamy and Hankey—when shall we all meet again?” (1862/04/26).  “I suppose Bellamy is still fending off the angry fiend” (1863/03/29).  “What of Hankey, and Bellamy?” (1863/05/07).  “Monday will be a failure.  We must set out at 9 P.M. not 11 and return before 12. Bellamy has promised to arrange the affair as soon as possible—probably next Monday week. Can you dine with me at 14 St James Square (7 P.M.) on that day—Monday 17th?? I will ask Cameron & Bellamy to meet you and if we don’t go to the Chinese lodgings we may drop in upon our old saintly friend …” (1875).  Burton also mentioned Bellamy in his description of a séance by the Davenport Brothers in 1865, apparently conducted at Bellamy’s house: “On occasion I placed my foot on Mr. Fay's, while Mr. Bellamy, the master of the house, did the same to Mr. Davenport, and we measured their distance from the semicircle—10 feet.”[35]

Bellamy was present in 1885 when F.F. Arbuthnot introduced H.S. Ashbee to Burton.[36]  Ashbee recorded in his diary that Monckton Milnes had introduced Bellamy to him on 8th June 1878.  Bellamy makes regular appearances in Ashbee’s diary from there on.  It was Bellamy who had introduced Arbuthnot, out of the blue, to Ashbee on the 29th May 1883.  Some correspondence between Arbuthnot and Bellamy from 1884 is said to survive—e.g. “very glad to hear that you saved some of Potter’s[37] things from destruction.  I saw the man they were left to, who informed me that he ought to have destroyed them all”.[38]  Bellamy was apparently also a subscriber to the Kamasutra, and Arbuthnot wrote to him to offer copies for circulation of the new work “by some learned Brahmans who are interested in the Humanities.”[39] 

On July 4 1886, Bellamy dined at the Richmond Club with Ashbee and the Anglo-Irish Catholic Sir Roland Blennerhassett.  Later in July he was accompanying Ashbee, Burton and Sir Charles Wingfield to Greenwich.  On the 22nd January 1888 Bellamy makes a final appearance in Ashbee’s diary, at dinner in the company once again of F.F. Arbuthnot at the East India Club. 

21.          Bispham, David Scull (1857-1921).

An American opera singer and actor of Quaker descent, a baritone who toured extensively in Europe. See Laura Williams Macy The Grove Book of Opera Singers.[40]  He left a reminiscence of the Burtons, though it is not clear exactly when they first met—“a wonderful couple merely to sit and watch.”[41]

22.          Bird, Alice “Lallah” (?-1921).

The cultured spinster sister of Dr. George Bird.  She ran his household after the death of his wife, and took an active role in their circle of friends, which included the scientist William Crookes.  She had an extensive correspondence with Swinburne, and also corresponded with Burton—see Volume 3.

23.          Bird, Dr. George (1817-1900).

Burton’s personal physician when he was in London.  His obituary in the British Medical Journal reads:[42]

We regret to have to announce the death of Dr. George Bird, formerly of Welbeck Street, London, which took place on May 4th at his house at Hampstead.  George Bird was born in 1817.  He was the eldest of a very large family.  His father, James Bird,[43] well known in Suffolk as a poet, died in middle life, and the boys had early to turn into the world, and every one of them made some sort of mark.  George was apprenticed to the doctor of the village, Dr. Wilson, known in his day as an authority on gout, and proud of the fact that he was sent for to prescribe for George IV.

In boyhood as in age Bird was always a pioneer. As a lad he wore yellow at a county election when all the neighbours were blue.  Indeed he was a born Progressist; never wavered, never compromised, and was always eager for education and development in every aspect.  From rural Suffolk he passed to London, and studied at University College.  In 1841 he took the diploma of M.R.C.S., and in 1859 the degree of M.D. at St. Andrews.

For thirty four years he practised at 49, Welbeck Street.  He always had an affinity for literature, art, and the drama, and he counted many illustrious people among his patients.  He attended Leigh Hunt, and knew behind the scenes. He never lost an occasion to bear witness to the fact that the financial reproaches heaped on Leigh Hunt were undeserved.  About two years ago he wrote a memorandum, which in due time will prove that Leigh Hunt was a heroic martyr.  It was to shield another he stoically bore aspersions on his character.  He also attended Sir Edward Bulwer Lytton, Dickens, Frank Stone, Sir Richard and Lady Burton, Thomas Woolner, R. H. Horne, Mrs. Lynn Linton, and many well-known people of the day.

An old friend of Dr. Bird sends us the following estimate of his character:

“To-the last he remained young in body and young in mind. He was always fond of athletic exercises, and in his younger days was an excellent boxer, and remained to the last an active cyclist.  He was also young in mind—always embraced with eagerness new ideas, and was in everything progressive.  He was most kind of heart and cheerful in disposition, and had at his disposal a fund of good stories, which he narrated excellently.  He thoroughly enjoyed life, and brought sunshine wherever he went to friends and patients.  His patients were all his devoted friends.  He leaves a happy memory behind him among his many friends who will sadly feel their loss, and will long cherish their recollection of George Bird."

Apparently Bird was also a political radical: “Mr. Goodwyn Barmby, a poet who possessed real lyrical power, an advocate of original tastes … founded a Communist church, and gave many proofs of boldness and courage.  He and Dr. George Bird, who afterwards obtained professional eminence in medicine, issued a prospectus of the London Communist Propagandist Society. Dr. Bird contributed the best literary reviews which appeared in social publications of the day.”[44] 

The Burtons knew the Birds and their circle well, and were married in their house at 26 Osnaburgh Street, Regent’s Park, in 1861.  RFB may have met Bird at some time in the 1850s, although the Birds were also known to the Arundell family.[45]  They would often reunite with Swinburne and the Birds, at their new address in Welbeck Street, when they were back in London—their friend Luke Ionides married the second daughter of Dr. Bird, Elfrida-Elizabeth. 

Burton used Bird as his personal physician when he was in town, and Bird was not vacationing in Egypt.  Volume 5 of the Nights was dedicated to him—“This is not a strictly medical work, although in places treating of subjects which may modestly be called hygienic.  I inscribe it to you because your knowledge of Egypt will enable you to appreciate its finer touches; and for another and a yet more cogent reason, namely, that you are one of my best and oldest friends.”

In 1895 the Birds moved to Windmill Hill in Hampstead, which was their final address.  Bird was over eighty when he died, and his sister was said to have passed 90.

24.          Blunt, Wilfrid Scawen (1840-1922).

A diarist, politician, oriental traveler and poet, born in Sussex and inducted into the Catholic faith on the conversion of his mother.[46]  Blunt was in the Consular Service between 1859 and 1869, and then married a grand-daughter of Byron, the daughter of Ada Lovelace.[47]  After that he wrote poetry, travelled extensively in the Middle East with his wife, dabbled in politics, adopted foreign causes, rained pamphlets, and raised Arabian horses.  At the same time he was a prodigious philanderer, with a reputation for vanity, counting Lady Gregory and William Morris’ wife Jane among his many and diverse trophies.  His brand of politics was a mixture of Tory landowner and anti-imperialist enthusiast, a romantic nationalism-for-thee-but-not-for-me that saw him promoting Home Rule in Ireland, and Egyptian and Indian Independence, while running unsuccessfully for Parliament on a Conservative Party ticket.

In 1867 Blunt was posted to the legation in Rio de Janeiro.  His cousin Walter Seymour recalled that “Wilfrid Blunt, a relation of mine, in the Legation at Buenos Ayres, turned up with his sister, a Norwegian Carriole, and a black imp whom he had purchased at St. Vincent, and who answered to the name of Pompey”.[48]  Blunt met Burton at Rio in the autumn of the following year.  Many years later—“I unfortunately kept no notes nor journals then”—he composed the well-crafted and often quoted reminiscence which appears in Volume 2.  It suggests that the Consul had gone to seed—“His dress and appearance were those suggesting a released convict”.  It is certain that Blunt quarreled at some stage with Burton.  One biographer notes that in 1878, when the Blunts visited S. Jackson Eldridge in Beyrout, they “were delighted to learn that Richard Burton’s name stank in the consulate”.[49]  Eldridge had been Burton’s Consul General.  The exact cause of the quarrel is not known. 

Blunt was the author of numerous works, including several books of poetry and polemics like The Secret History of the English Occupation of Egypt (1907); but he is chiefly remembered now for his My Diaries 2 vols. (1919) and an unpublished personal journal which was embargoed until fifty years after his death.

25.          Blumhardt, James Fuller (?-1922).

A Professor of Hindustani, and Reader of Hindi and Bengali, at University College London.  He was also a teacher of Bengali at Oxford University.  Burton met him through A. G. Ellis of the British Museum and refers to him several times in his correspondence with Ellis, and in the Nights.[50]  Blumhardt helped to translate the manuscript of Aladdin which was eventually located in Paris, and which was in Hindustani.

26.          Blackwood, John (1818-1879).

A Scottish publisher, part of the Blackwood family dynasty publishing as “William Blackwood and sons”, which was founded in 1804.  The firm published articles by both Burton and Speke in their widely-circulated Blackwood’s Magazine, as well as Speke’s subsequent books on his African travels.  John Blackwood befriended Speke, while still maintaining cordial relations with Burton, and they had an extensive correspondence.[51]  The Blackwood archives in the National Library of Scotland are now an important source of information about Speke, since few of his other papers have survived.

27.          Brassey, Anna Allnutt (1839–1887).

An English travel writer.  Her maiden name was Allnutt.  She married Sir Thomas Brassey, a Member of Parliament, and they travelled extensively in their yacht.  It is not clear when she first met Burton, but she published a brief account of “our old friend” in Trieste in the late 1870s.[52]

28.          Buckley-Mathew, Sir George Benvenuto (1807-1879).

A soldier and diplomat, from a military family.  After serving in the Coldstream Guards and other regiments, he was elected an MP from 1835-1841, after which he was Governor of the Bahamas in 1844, and then had diplomatic postings in Russia, Mexico, Guatemala and Argentina.  Buckley-Mathew knew the Burtons through the Foreign Office.  They may have met for the first time in Brazil, where they were both stationed.  Buckley-Mathew was then “Minister Plenipotentiary” to the Emperor of Brazil.  He is referred to often in Brazil-related correspondence by the Burtons.  Later, when Burton assembled his response to his recall from Damascus, he relied on Buckley-Mathew for support—“Throughout my four years of service in the Brazil I never bad a dispute or even a difference with the authorities, and I can confidently refer your Lordship, to Her Majesty’s Envoy, Mr., Buckley Mathew, C.B., for his opinion as regards the esteem in which I was held, and for the mode in which I performed my duties.”[53]

29.          Burke, Luke (?-1885).

A prominent member of the Anthropological Society, having been one of the founders of the Ethnological Society in 1861.  He also edited a journal called The Future: a journal of philosophical research and criticism circa 1860, and had brought out an Ethnological Journal as early as 1848.  Earlier he had published a treatise on phrenology with a the fulsome title Phrenological Enquiries: Being an Investigation, First of the Causes which Have Prevented the General Reception of Phrenology, Secondly, of the Nature and Advantages of the Researches of Its Advocates, and Elucidating the Imperfections of the "present System," and the Improvements and Discoveries of the Author (1840).  Burke knew and corresponded with Burton, who had been a co-founder of the break-away Anthropological Society in 1863 and its Vice-President.  “With Mr. Luke Burke, I hold, as a tenet of faith, the doctrine of great ethnic centres, and their comparative gradation.”[54]

30.          Burton, Isabel (1831-1896).

Born Isabel Arundell, into the Anglo-Catholic aristocracy.  She met RFB in Boulogne in the early 1850s, and closely followed his career after that.  They were married in 1861, against the wishes of her parents.  She remained in England with her parents while he was stationed in Fernando Po from 1861 to 1864, but later accompanied him to his postings in Brazil, Damascus and Trieste.  They had no children, and around 1880 she told her doctor that she had “never been in the family way”.  She acted as Burton’s hard-working literary amanuensis and business manager—at least for his mainstream works.  She was the author of her own The Inner Life of Syria, Palestine and the Holy Land (1875) and Arabia, Egypt, India (1879)—though both volumes contain a substantial amount of material by RFB—as well as a two volume Life of Burton in 1893.  Misreading her husband’s audience, she had also caused the bowdlerized Lady Burton's Edition of Her Husband's Arabian Nights to be published in 1886. 

Isabel, a pious woman, became notorious for her claim that Burton, who was notable among his friends for his atheism, had accepted the Catholic Church on his deathbed.  She also burned most of his literary remains, including nearly all his diaries and letters, and the unpublished editions of erotica that she disapproved of.  She interred his embalmed body in a mausoleum in Mortlake, after a second full-fledged burial service to follow on the first service performed in Trieste—Francis Galton said that it was “a ceremony quite alien to anything that I could conceive him to care for”.  She took a nearby cottage and held weekend séances in the tomb, which was fitted out with coloured electric lights and an altar.  She died in London of ovarian cancer in 1896, after a long illness, and was interred next to RFB in Mortlake.

Some of Burton’s manuscript material was burnt by Isabel in Trieste, other parts were burnt in London, and the remainder was burnt by her literary executor after her death, on her instructions.  The exact division of proportions at the various stages of this process of destruction can only be guessed at, but the staging determines only her degree of calculation, not the final outcome.  As a result, many former friends like Algernon Swinburne, Lynn Linton and Ouida broke with her, as well as many members of Burton’s own family.  The bonfiring of this material makes it particularly difficult to evaluate her Life, which is now the only source for the entries from his diaries and other material represented there.  Internal stylistic evidence suggests that much of it—consult, say, the entries referring to Speke—was rewritten by her.

31.          Burnand, Sir Francis Cowley (1836-1917).

A playwright, author, and editor of Punch, the only son of a London stockbroker.  He converted to Catholicism, and met Burton in the London social scene of the 1870s or 1880s, through the actor Henry Irving.  He left a reminiscence of Burton, describing him as “a queer bluff man”, in the old-fashioned sense—see Volume 3.

32.          Bushe, Charles Percy (1829-1898).

A Captain in the Royal Navy who was stationed in Paraguay.[55]  He captained the Linnet, and left a reminiscence of Burton, who he had met there circa 1869—“he showed no active animosity against any sort of religion except one, the religion of his wife. For that he freely expressed contempt.  I remember his telling me that she had a little shrine in her room, and that, on some occasion when they had a difference of opinion, he threatened that if she did not keep quiet he would ‘pitch her joss-house out of the window.’ ”[56]  Burton mentions him several times—“Mr. Gould had given me an introductory note to Lieutenant—now I am glad to say Commander C. Percy Bushe, commanding H.M.’s steamer Linnet.  A man-of-war in miniature, and the only neutral ship here present, she is remarkable for trimness and neatness, discomfort and inutility.”[57] 

33.          Burton, Edward Joseph Netterville (1824-1895).

The younger brother of Richard Francis Burton.  He was admitted as a pensioner to Trinity College Cambridge on July 5th 1843, and matriculated, i.e. was admitted into the university as opposed to just his college, in the Michaelmas (first) term of 1843.[58]  He left without a degree, joining the Army in 1845 (37th foot, purchased commission).  He rose to Lieut. on 20th November 1846, then after serving in Ceylon, to Captain on 20th March 1856.  He took an active part in the Indian Mutiny of 1857, where he was awarded the Indian Mutiny Medal.[59]  The New Army List notes that he “commanded the Bickrumgee outpost, and was engaged in its defence from 1st September to 16th October 1856 against the rebel force under Ummer Singh” and was also involved in the capture of Judgespore.[60]  He went on sick leave in 1863 and then on half-pay in 1864.  Eventually he was placed in the retired list in 1881, with promotion to Major, but he was already in the Springfield Asylum, Wandsworth by then, and remained confined there until his death in 1895.  Isabel mentions visiting the asylum in 1875, but omits the most relevant inmate: “Another very interesting visit we paid was to the Surrey County Lunatic Asylum, Wandsworth Common, where the doctor, who was a friend of my husband’s, invited us to spend the day and dine with him, and he showed us over everything; but I know that I, for one, felt awfully glad when we left it; some of the faces that I saw there I can see now if I shut my eyes and think.”[61]  A family legend attributed his mental condition to a severe assault he received in Ceylon at the hands of disgruntled villagers, later followed by sunstroke during the Mutiny, but that is open to question.  The Guardian (1895.ii.6) has a death notice: “Jan. 29, Malvern, Major Edward Joseph Netterville Burton, formerly Captain in Her Majesty's 87th Regiment of Foot.”

Thomas Wright (1906) introduced several inaccuracies about E. J. N. Burton, confusing him with a cousin of RFB, Dr. Edward John Burton (1814-1897),[62] and incorrectly making him an army surgeon, errors which have been repeated many times in other biographies and cross-references: “In the meantime his brother Edward, now more Greek-looking than ever, had risen to be Surgeon-Major, and had proceeded to Ceylon, where he was quartered with his regiment, the 37th”.[63] 

Wright also gives the following family anecdote about the silence of Edward Burton, which he must have got from Dr. E. J. Burton himself:

Every human device had been tried to lead him to conversation, and hitherto in vain. It seems that some years previous, and before Edward's illness, Dr. E. J. Burton had lent his cousin a small sum of money, which was duly repaid. One day Dr. Burton chose to assume the contrary, and coming upon Edward suddenly he cried:

"Edward, you might just as well have paid me that money I lent you at Margate. I call it shabby, now."

Edward raised his head and fixing his eyes on Dr. Burton said, with great effort, and solemnly, "Cousin, I did pay you, you must remember that I gave you a cheque."

Thrilled with joy, Dr. Burton attempted to extend the conversation, but all in vain, and to his dying day Edward Burton never uttered another word.

34.          Burton, Joseph Netterville (1783?-1857).

Father of Richard Francis Burton, a Lieut. Colonel in the British Army.  He saw action in Italy and Egypt during the Napoleonic wars.  He entered the 31st Regiment as a Lieut. on Nov. 4th 1805, and was promoted to Captain in the 21st April 1814, as deputy assistant quartermaster general.  Soon after he went to live in Italy, and returned to the Army only on the 20th May 1819, exchanging into the 33rd Foot, which was stationed on the Channel Islands and at Portsmouth.  He married Martha Baker, second daughter of Richard Baker of Barham House Hertfordshire, on March 2nd 1820, at St James Church in London.[64]  This puts to rest the elaborate speculation by Jon Godsall that the pair had run away to Scotland to be married.  They were, as the Morning Post duly noted, married on a Thursday morning by the Dean of Chester.[65]

After his marriage, Joseph Netterville exchanged into the 37th Foot on Oct 19th 1820, going on half-pay.  Although Jon Godsall confidently asserts that this was due to the 33rd Foot having just been posted to Jamaica, a feverish graveyard for European soldiers, this conjecture—which has no other supporting evidence—would at most explain why he switched regiments, and not why his new regiment agreed to put him on half pay.[66]  The reason later given by his grand-daughter Georgiana Stisted, ‘bronchial asthma’, is more convincing.[67] 

The Burtons produced two sons, Richard Francis (1821) and Edward Joseph Netterville (1823), and a daughter, Maria (1823).[68]  The family lived mostly in France and Italy, where it was cheaper, with occasional interludes in England.  On the 10th January 1836 Joseph Netterville was promoted to Brevet Major.[69]  Finally he was promoted to Lieut. Colonel, on 11th Nov. 1855, in the 34th Foot.[70]  He did not see active service again until his death in 1857, at age 74, at his home in Bennet-street, Bath. 

35.          Butler, Alfred Joshua (1850-1936).

An Oxford-educated English historian, noted for his works on Egypt, especially The Arab Conquest of Egypt and the Last Thirty Years of the Roman Dominion (Oxford, 1902).  He met Burton in Cairo circa 1880 and left a passing reminiscence—“I met him dining at Turabi's house, and Turabi afterwards told me that he was on board the same ship with Captain Burton bound for Alexandria, when the latter was about starting on his great journey.”[71]

36.          Butterworth, Alan (1864-1937).

An Indian Civil Servant, author of Inscriptions on the Copper Plates and Stones in Nellore District, Some Madras Trees and other books.  He knew of Burton at second-hand through officers he met in India, but since Burton-sightings from this early period are rare, his hearsay is included in Volume 1.

37.          Cameron, Verney Lovett (1844-1894).

A naval officer and explorer, born in Dorset.  He joined the Navy in 1857, and served in the Abyssinian Campaign of 1868, and then on the East Coast anti-slavery squadron.  While still a lieutenant, he volunteered to relieve Livingstone in 1873, but discovered shortly after setting out from Zanzibar that Livingstone was already dead, so he proceeded to cross Africa instead, recovering Livingstone’s papers along the way, rounding the southern end of Lake Tanganyika, discovering the Lualaba River on its Western flank, and eventually reaching Angola in November 1875.  He was therefore the first European explorer to cross through the middle of Africa from coast to coast, a journey he described in Across Africa (1877).  He was promptly promoted to Commander in July 1876.  This entire initiative annoyed the RGS, who did not anticipate the considerable expenses run up by Cameron, and were reluctant to reimburse him.  He corresponded with Burton, who publicly pressed the RGS to reimburse the expedition, and they later formed a close friendship.  Soon after his expedition, Stanley’s dramatic journey down the Congo overshadowed his achievements. 

Cameron later joined Burton on a gold prospecting expedition to West Africa in the early 1880s, collaborating on the book To The Gold Coast For Gold 2 vols. (1883).  He had an extensive correspondence with Burton, and left an admiring reminiscence—Going over ground which he explored, with his Lake Regions of Central Africa in my hand, I was astonished at the acuteness of his perception and the correctness of his descriptions.” [72]

38.          Cautley, Philip Proby.

Burton’s Vice Consul in Trieste, succeeding Vice Consul Brock, who retired in 1883.  He taught the now well-known author Italo Svevo (Ettore Schmitz) English, and was succeeded as a language instructor in Trieste by James Joyce.  He resented the burden of work that he had to bear due to Burton’s long absences from the Consulate.  Cautley was also one of Thomas Wright’s first-hand sources for his biography (1906).

39.          Chaillé-Long, Charles (1842-1917).

An American soldier, explorer, diplomat and author from Princess Anne in Maryland, the son of a planter.  He was of French extraction, and due to his father’s intervention had served in the Union Army during the Civil War, rather than with the Confederates.[73]  Along with several ex-Confederates he joined the Khedive’s Egyptian army in 1869, and was Chief of staff to General Gordon—though Gordon soon came to dislike him.  He explored the upper reaches of the Nile and discovered Lake Ibrahim, but was invalided in 1877.  He then studied at Columbia law school, and practiced law in Egypt—he also served as the US Consul to Korea.  He wrote several books of travels, including Central Africa: Naked Truths of Naked People (1876) and an admiring reminiscence of Burton, with whom he had an active correspondence and a strong rapport.  Chaillé Long had fallen out with the RGS after they elected to rename Lake Ibrahim to Lake Kyoga, and this ‘outsider’ status formed the initial basis of their attraction to each other, as well Burton’s enduring hope that the Nile geography might eventually be upset.

40.          Clodd, Edward (1840-1930).

An English banker and author, born at Margate, the son of a ship owner.  He attended after-hours lectures at Birkbeck, University of London, becoming the sub-editor of Knowledge and a member of numerous London literary and scientific clubs and societies.  This put him in contact with many travellers and leading scientific and literary figures of the day.  He also contributed articles to several encyclopedias.  Clodd knew Burton in the early 1860s through the Anthropological Society, and also through Dr. George Bird.  He left a reminiscence of both men.[74]

41.          Clouston, William Alexander (1843-1896).

A folklorist from Orkney, author of The Book of Sindibad (Privately printed, 1884) and Popular Tales and Fictions: their Migrations and Transformations (Edinburgh: Blackwood, 1887) which he dedicated to Burton, “the eminent scholar and world-wide traveller; whose notes to his complete translation of 'the book of the thousand nights and a night' are ample evidence of his interest in, and knowledge of, the genealogy of popular tales.”  Clouston also contributed notes to the Supplemental Nights.[75]

42.          Coghlan, William Marcus (1803-1885).

Political resident at Aden, later Commandant (1854-1863).  He was the son of a Captain in the Navy, and was educated at Addiscombe, after which he joined the Bombay Artillery and served in Scinde.  He succeeded James Outram at Aden in October 1854.  On his retirement in 1864 he was knighted, and later promoted to General. 

Burton had extensive dealings with Coghlan during the Somali Expedition of 1854-5 and several letters to him from the period survive.[76]  Burton later blamed the failure of the Somali Expedition on what he described as Coghlan’s apathy.[77]

43.          Coimbra, Dr. Augusto Teixeira

A resident of Brazil.  He was Burton’s partner in a mining concession obtained from the Emperor of Brazil on 25th September 1868.  This granted them mineral rights in the entire province of Sāo Paulo.  He is mentioned by Burton in Highlands of the Brazil in connection with diamonds: “I have only seen one in the Brazil, and that was brought from Rio Verde of Sāo Paulo by my friend Dr. Augusto Tiexeira[78] Coimbra. It came to a bad end: he dropped it from his waistcoat pocket, and it was swallowed by a fowl.”  Burton referred to Coimbra often in his Brazil-related correspondence, e.g.  “Coimbra I presume is heiress-hunting as usual.  He'll marry some fat thing with a full pouch and a temper.”[79]  There is a book still extant in Burton’s personal library associated with Coimbra.[80] 

Figure 3.  Mining Concession granted to Burton and Teixeira.

44.          Coke, Henry John (1827-1916).

An English traveller and author, the son of the Earl of Leicester, and grandson of “Coke of Norfolk”.  He joined the Royal Navy as a cadet at age 11, becoming a Midshipman, and serving in China 1840-2.  Wrote numerous books about his travels, including a popular account of his journey through the Rocky Mountains in 1850.[81] He knew the Burtons through Dr. George Bird, though it is not clear when they first met, and left a reminiscence—“Said he: ‘I don't want to be mistaken for other people.’  ‘There's not much fear of that, even without your clothes,’ I replied.”[82]

45.          Colquhoun, Archibald Ross (1848–1914).

A colonial administrator of Scottish extraction, born in Cape Town but educated in Scotland and trained as a civil engineer.  He was the first governor of Southern Rhodesia (1890-2), and was also a noted traveller and author in his own right.  He met Burton through the London Social circuit in the early 1880s and left a short reminiscence—“His tales when the ladies had withdrawn—luckily in those days they always ‘withdrew’—were ‘scorchers’ ”.[83]

46.          Crane, Walter (1845-1915).

An English artist and illustrator of children’s literature, from an artistic family.  He was associated with the William Morris’ Arts and Crafts movement, and met Burton in the 1880s through Oscar Wilde, leaving a minor reminiscence—“One had the impression of a massive personality, and one with whom it would not be pleasant to quarrel”.[84]

47.          Davenport, The Brothers.

The Davenports, Ira Erastus (1839-1911) and William Henry (1841-1877), were American magicians from Buffalo New York who latched onto the mid Victorian craze for ‘spirit phenomena.’  Dr. J. B. Ferguson, part of their act, was also an American.  Burton attended their performances in London, which, like most of his contemporaries he found impressive and hard to explain away.  He mentioned the Davenports several times in his writings on Spiritualism and in his correspondence.[85] 

48.          Davey, Richard Patrick Boyle (1848-1915).

An English journalist from Norfolk, based from 1870-1880 in New York, and after that in England, where he wrote for the Saturday Review and the Morning Post.  He was the author of The Sultan and His Subjects (1907) among other works, and appears to have met Burton in the 1880s—“You must face your true Asiatic with no sense of your own superiority, for one soon finds that he is in many ways a bigger man than you.  He is at least never a canting humbug.”[86]

49.          Dawson, Llewellyn Styles (1847-1921).

A Lieutenant in the Navy, sent by the RGS on a mission to relieve Livingstone in 1872, which was preempted by Henry Morton Stanley.  After reaching Zanzibar and being told by Stanley that Livingstone had already been found, Dawson returned back to England, leading to some criticism of his conduct.  Burton refers to him several times in his correspondence.

50.          De Kusel, Samuel Selig (1848-1917).

A merchant and customs official at Alexandria, born in Liverpool.  He was a Captain in East Surrey regiment, but was created a Baron by the Italians in 1890.[87]  De Kusel met Burton on several occasions in Egypt in April 1878, and left a brief account.

51.          De Leon, Edwin (1818–1891).

American diplomat and journalist of Jewish extraction.  Served in the Confederate army in the US Civil War.  He met the Burtons in Egypt in the late 1870s or early 1880s and left an account—“he was very superstitious, which is a common failing among people who have lived and been intimately connected with the nations of the East”.[88]

52.          Dennis, George (1814-1898).

A traveller and authority on the Etruscans, the self-taught son of an excise officer.  He was the author of A Summer in Andalucia (Bentley: London, 1839) and a notable account of The Cities and Cemeteries of Etruria (Murray: London, 1848). He was the Consul at Crete, Sicily, and Smyrna.  Burton met him in the mid-1870s when he was writing Ultima Thule and researching Etruscan Bologna, and referred to him optimistically—“the curious reader will consult my friend and colleague Mr. Dennis”—though Dennis did not take to him at all, writing snottily to his publisher John Murray “I don't feel at all honoured by being booked as his ‘friend’.  I only saw him once for 5 minutes when he called on me in Palermo while Lady Denman (not Isabella) was waiting in the carriage, and would not come in.  He came to my backdoor, looked at my Arab horses, and was off.  There is a friendship!  But from what I have heard of his antecedents, he must be glad to claim any respectable individual, even tho' as insignificant as myself, as his ‘friend’.[89]

53.          De Ruvignes, Charles Henry Theodore Bruce (1829-1883)

A soldier and Colonial administrator.  He joined the Army in 1846 and served in the Frontier Wars in South Africa, and then in Burma. He was Civil Commandant of Accra in the Gold Coast between 1857 and 1863—see Wanderings in West Africa.[90]  Later he was involved in the Ashanti War of 1872.  His name is sometimes given as ‘Ruvigny,’ since he was the 8th Marquis of Ruvigny & Raineval.  He is often mentioned in Burton’s correspondence connected with West Africa—see Volume 1.

54.          De Ruvigny.

See De Ruvignes, Charles Henry Theodore Bruce, above.

55.          Didier, Charles (1805-1864).

A partially-blind French traveller who encountered Burton shortly after his journey to Mecca, on his way to Aden by way of Suez.  Didier’s journals contain a record of this encounter—“On sighting Mr. Burton, our Indian recognised him at a glance, as he had seen him several months before on Mount Arafat, devoutly fulfilling, like himself, the ceremonies of the last pilgrimage.”[91]  He wrote and published poetry, novels and several travel books but committed suicide in 1864 after going completely blind.

56.          Doughty, Charles Montagu (1843-1926).

A traveller and author, educated at King’s College in London and at Cambridge, from where he graduated in 1864.  He travelled in the Arabian Peninsula in the 1870s, proceeding south from Damascus in 1876 and ending at Jiddah in 1878.  This led to his Arabia Deserta (Cambridge, 1888), a literary travel memoir written in an archaic style that he believed was best suited to the anachronistic subject matter, and which took him years to contrive.  Doughty corresponded with Burton during the writing of the book, and his subsequent struggle to get it published.[92]  Burton later wrote a critical review of Arabia Deserta for The Academy—“Mr. Doughty informed me that he has not read what I have written upon Arabia; and this I regret more for his sake than for mine”. [93]

57.          Drake, Charles Francis Tyrwhitt (1846–1874).

An archeologist and traveller, the son of Colonel W. Tyrwhitt Drake.  He was educated at Rugby and Wellington College, and at Trinity College, Cambridge, though he did not take a degree.  After he left Cambridge he travelled in Morocco, Egypt and the Sinai in the late 1860s, developing an interest in natural history and archeology  He joined Professor E. H. Palmer on an expedition to Palestine in 1869.  The Burtons met Drake and Palmer in Syria in July 1870, and after a joint archeological expedition Drake co-authored Unexplored Syria (1872) with them.  He was at Nazareth with the Burtons when their party was involved in a fracas there.  After Burton’s recall, he visited them in Trieste.  In 1874 he died suddenly of fever in Jerusalem.  Burton left the affectionate reminiscence of Drake which appears in Volume 2—“He was my inseparable companion during the rest of our stay in Palestine, and never did I travel with any man whose disposition was so well adapted to make a first-rate explorer”.

58.          Du Chaillu, Paul Belloni (1835-1902).

An American explorer of West Africa, of French origin, who created a fierce controversy in 1861 after describing the previously-unknown Gorilla with some dramatic embroidery in his book Explorations & adventures in equatorial Africa; with accounts of the manners and customs of the people, and of the chace of the gorilla (New York, Harper brothers, 1861).  At a meeting of the Ethnological Society in June 1861, Du Chaillu retaliated against one of his most vocal critics, T. A. Malone, from the London Institution, by spitting on him, but soon apologized in a contrite letter to The Times.  At this time he met Burton, who came to his defence in public, and subsequently corresponded with him—“Du Chaillu showed no end of gratitude, came up from Scotland … and accompanied me to the R.R. and en partant thrust into my hand something from which he told me to drink to his health—when opened it showed up a neat silver mug!”[94]  Burton often mentions him in his correspondence, expressing far more skepticism about Du Chaillu’s claims in private than he did in public—“Apropos of the latter Du Chaillu writes to propose a trading & hunting partnership with me—which I shall decline. I have now seen the very narrow field of his exploits.”[95]

59.          Dunraven, Earl of (Windham Thomas Wyndham-Quin) (1841-1926).

An Anglo-Irish newspaper correspondent and politician.  He Served for a time in the Life Guards and in the Imperial Yeomanry, and was also an accomplished yachtsman.  He left a brief reminiscence of Burton, though it is not certain when they first met—“Wilfrid Blount, with his Arab steeds and his oriental complex.  Richard Burton, who prided himself on looking like Satan—as, indeed, he did, if Mephistopheles is a fair portrait—also with an oriental complex, but of a very different kind.”[96]

60.          Eames, William. James.

A surgeon in the Royal Navy, who served in the West Coast squadron on HMS Bloodhound and met Burton at Fernando Po.  He went on to become Fleet Surgeon.  Eames left a small reminiscence of Burton in a letter to a newspaper, stating that he had passed several months in his company—“He was, indeed, a man of iron will, and had a forcible manner of showing it”.[97]  Burton makes no mention of him.

61.          Edwards, Henry Sutherland (1828-1906).

An English author and journalist who wrote for Punch, and collected descriptions of his travels as a correspondent in Russia, Poland and Prussia.  He also wrote works of musical history and criticism.  Edwards met Burton through the publisher William Tinsley in the early 1860s and left an after-dinner story—“Tinsley … sent out for oysters and champagne, and before the second bottle was finished had agreed to give Burton (who had a head of iron) two hundred pounds more than he had originally asked”.[98]

62.          Edwards, John Passmore (1823-1911).

An English philanthropist and author, the son of a carpenter.  He became a self-made newspaper proprietor and MP, but since he was ideologically a Manchester liberal, he declined offers of a knighthood.  He claimed to have been challenged to a duel by Burton over the Du Chaillu affair, but simply ignored the challenge.[99]

63.          Eldridge, George Jackson (1826-?).

A solider who served in the British Army in the Crimea, and was present when Sebastopol fell.  He was Consul at Kertch in 1856, and Erzeroom in 1862, then Consul-General at Beyrout from 1863 onward.  He was Burton’s superior when he was Consul at Damascus (1869-1871).  He received the order of St. Michael and St. George in 1880, and was a Freemason in Palestine Lodge number 451.  For some reason his name is often given as “S. Jackson Eldridge”, even in official correspondence.  Eldridge, while he kept up a friendly private correspondence with the Burtons, was critical of their activities to his superiors.  RFB interpreted this as a betrayal: “I regret that I have not a single official letter from Mr. Consul-General Eldridge to put in. … my surprise was extreme, when I found that he had been officially opposed to me on every great occasion.”[100]

64.          Elliot, Sir Henry (1817-1907).

A diplomat, the second son of the second Earl of Minto.  He was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, and appointed Ambassador at Constantinople between 1867 and 1877.  He was Burton’s superior when he was Consul at Damascus between 1969 and 1871.  In 1877 Elliot was recalled from Constantinople due to concerns that he was too favourably disposed to the Turks—he was succeeded by A. H. Layard—and was placed at Vienna after this.  His memoirs, which were published by his daughter as Some revolutions and other diplomatic experiences (1922)[101] make no reference to Burton.

65.          Ellis, Alexander George (1858-1942).

Assistant-Keeper of the Oriental Books and Manuscripts collection of the British Museum, which he joined in 1883.  He was the son of a civil servant and educated at Merchant Taylor’s School in London.  He studied semitic languages at Cambridge, gaining a first-class degree in 1881. He left the British Museum after 26 years, in 1909, to become sub-Librarian at the India Office till his retirement in 1930.  See the obituary in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society.[102]  Ellis corresponded with Burton about The Arabian Nights, The Perfumed Garden and related matters—see Volume 3.

66.          Erhardt, Rev. Johann Jakob (1823-1901).

A German Missionary from Württemberg, stationed at Mombas in East Africa from 1849-1855.  He operated under the auspices of the Church Missionary Society, along with Johannes Rebmann, after which he went to India, 1856-1891, and then returned to Germany.  Erhardt and Rebmann sketched the well-known “slug map” which combined the lakes in the African interior into one giant body of water, and was first published in the Calwer Missionsblatt (1855/10/01).  Burton often referred to Erhardt, and corresponded with him,[103] but it is not certain if they ever met in person.

67.          Faber, George Louis (1843-1915).

The British Consul at Fiume, author of Fisheries of the Adriatic, which was reviewed By Burton in the Journal of the Royal Society of Arts.[104]  He was married to Alice ‘Fanny’ Krupp (1852-1938) of the Krupp arms manufacturing dynasty.  Faber wrote a brief recollection of Burton, who he knew from nearby Trieste, in a letter to a newspaper—“he never disguised his feelings as regards the petticoat tribe, as he termed the priests”.[105]

68.          Fahie, John Joseph (1846-1934).

An engineer who worked for the Indo-European Government Telegraph Department, and wrote a notable History of Wireless Telegraphy (London: Blackwood, 1899).  He corresponded extensively with Isabel Burton, and helped her to obtain subscribers to the Arabian Nights—“I am not surprised at what you tell me about your dream, Richd has a very magnetic effect upon certain temperaments, myself amongst a number of cases, but I know several people (men also) who have had dreams about him.”[106]  RFB put Fahie’s name down for the long waiting list of the Athenaeum Club.  See Eric Stanley Whitehead A short account of the life and work of John Joseph Fahie (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1939).

69.          Ferguson, Sir Samuel (1810-1886).

An Irish antiquarian and barrister, with interests in early Irish history and antiquities.  He is now associated primarily with the “Irish Twilight” movement.  He wrote Ogham Inscriptions in Ireland, Wales and Scotland (Edinburgh: David Douglas, 1887) which was published posthumously.  Burton was interested in Ogham inscriptions and corresponded with Ferguson.  They may have met in 1878 when Burton was at the meeting of the British Association in Dublin.

70.          Freeman, Edward August (1823-1892).

Regius Professor of Modern History at Oxford, author of History of the Norman Conquest of England: Its Causes and Its Results (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1867–1879).  He was notable for his political activism against the Ottoman Empire.  He had been a contemporary of Burton’s at Oxford in 1841[107] and corresponded extensively with him from the 1870s onward about political affairs in the Balkans.

71.          Friswell, James Hain (1825-1878).

A prolific English novelist, essayist, journalist and editor, best known for his very popular collection The Gentle Life: Essays in Aid of the Formation of Character (London: Sampson, 1864).  Friswell knew and corresponded with both of the Burtons extensively from at least the early 1860s, assisting with the production and publication of Burton’s satirical poem Stone Talk (1865).

72.          Friswell, Laura (1850-1908).

The daughter of James Hain Friswell (1825-1878), to whom Burton dedicated Stone Talk in 1865.  She also published as Mrs. Ambrose Myall.[108]  She knew the Burtons through her father in the early 1860s and left several reminiscences of them, though especially of Isabel—“there was a prince somewhere called ‘dear Richard,’ about whom she continually talked to my father and mother, and who was persecuted and oppressed”.[109]

73.          Furniss, Harry (1854-1925).

An Anglo-Irish cartoonist, illustrator and painter whose work appeared in the major London newspapers, including Punch.  He later exhibited his own work and wrote several books of reminiscences.  His connection to Burton was slight, through his brother-in-law, but he left a second-hand reminiscence which shows the long reach of Burton’s popular reputation.[110]

74.          Galton, Sir Francis (1822-1911).

English polymath: traveller, geographer, meteorologist, statistician, geneticist and scientist.[111]  Knighted in 1908.  After his return from exploring South-West Africa, Galton met Burton at Dover, around January of 1853.  Burton was staying there with his sister Maria Stisted.  They were close friends through the 1850s and early 1860s, until the dispute between Burton and Speke produced a rift, after Galton had defended Speke in the columns of The Reader.  They were reconciled in later years, as the correspondence reproduced in volumes 2 and 3 shows. 

75.          Geary, Grattan (?-1900).

A newspaperman of Irish origin, editor of the Times of India and later owner and editor of the Bombay Gazette.  An Irish “Home-Ruler”, he was also notable for his book Through Asiatic Turkey (Sampson Low: London, 1878).  He was known as “The Fenian” within the European community in India.[112]  Burton befriended him during his visit to India in 1876, and a substantial correspondence between the two survives.  Burton used Geary extensively to place anonymous articles in the press.

76.          Gerard, Cécile Jules Basile (1817-1864).

A French soldier and explorer who wrote reports from Dahome, and was later killed trying to get to Timbuktu.  He styled himself the “lion killer”.  See his The life and adventures of Jules Gérard (William Lay, London, 1857).  Gerard had visited Dahome in 1863, at the same time as Burton, who met him at Kana (though they had previously met on the boat from Europe to Madeira).  Burton wrote that “He came to West Africa in the hope that his fame as a killer of lions had preceded him; but the only lion that can exist in that mouldy climate is the British lion, and even he is not a terrible beast to bring amongst the ladies.  He expected to find Dahome a kind of Algiers, and he exchanged a good for a very bad country.”[113]

77.          Gessi, Romolo (1831-1881).

An Italian solider and explorer of Equatoria.  He was employed by General Charles Gordon, and penetrated the upper Nile from the North, up to Lake Albert, in 1876.  He caught fever on the Nile and died in Suez in 1881.  His memoirs were published as Sette anni nel Sudan egiziano (Milano, 1891).  Burton and Gordon often referred to Gessi in their correspondence, as Burton had pinned his hopes on Lake Albert having an influent from the South, from Lake Tanganyika.

78.          Gordon, Major-General Charles George (1833–1885).

A soldier and martyr.  From a military family, Gordon was educated at Woolwich in the Royal Military Academy, joining the Royal Engineers.  He served in the Crimea with distinction, was promoted to Captain, but made his reputation in China, where he participated in the sack of Peking in 1860 and was promoted to Major.  In the service of the Chinese government he suppressed the Taiping rebellion of 1863, and was promoted to Lieut.-Col. on his return to England in 1865.  In 1873 he was given the governorship of the “equatorial regions of Central Africa”, succeeding Sir Samuel Baker, taking up duties in 1874 at Gondokoro.  In 1877 his authority was extended to the Sudan and Darfur, with suppression of the Slave Trade a stated goal.  After enduring capture and hardship in the ensuing strife, he left the region and, after dabbling in China (again), Ireland and the Cape, was in 1883 en route to the Congo in the service of the Belgians when he was recalled and sent to the Sudan as Governor General to suppress the revolt of Madhi, a violent Islamic messianic eruption.  He was killed at Khartoum in January 1885, after a long siege by the Madhi.  Gordon corresponded extensively with Burton, and met both the Burtons in person several times.  He attempted on several occasions to lure Burton to govern Darfur, but Burton refused.

79.          Grant, James Augustus (1827-1892).

A Scottish soldier and explorer, companion of Speke on his final Nile journey (1860-3) which he described in his own account  A Walk Across Africa (London: Blackwood, 1864).  He saw service in the Sikh War of 1848-9, the Indian Mutiny of 1857, and the Abyssinian campaign of 1868, rising to Lieutenant-Colonel.  Speke met him in India where they were in the Indian Army together.  Grant joined the army in 1846, and became strongly attached to Speke.  After the rift between Burton and Speke he maintained a life-long hostility to Burton, as the extensive correspondence with Speke and C. P. Rigby reproduced here shows.  He seems never to have met Burton in person—“ I have always felt bitterly towards Burton & declined to be introduced to him when asked by Mrs. Burton”.[114]

80.          Granville, Earl (1815–1891).

Otherwise known as Granville George Leveson-Gower, 2nd Earl Granville.  He was leading figure in the Liberal Party, serving as Gladstone’s Foreign Secretary between 1870 and 1874, and again between 1880 and 1885.  He promoted a non-interventionist and conciliatory foreign policy  It was Granville who recalled Burton from Damascus in 1871.

81.          Graves-Sawle, Lady (1818-1914).

Born Rose Paynter.  She was a friend of the poet Walter Savage Landor who dedicated works to her when she was a young woman.  Later she married Charles Brune Graves-Sawle, 2nd Baronet (1816–1903).  She met the Burtons in Vienna in 1873, where they were staying in the same hotel, and left a reminiscence—“She was very bright and pleasant; but her husband was generally silent, except when on the subject of his travels”.[115]

82.          Hale, Richard Walden (1871-1943).

An American lawyer and author, from Massachusetts.  He graduated from Harvard Law School in 1895, founded the Boston law firm Hale and Dorr, and was also a friend of Oliver Wendell Holmes.[116]  Hale’s Great-Aunt Thesta Dana, with her husband and daughter, shared a stage coach with Burton in 1860 when he was travelling to Salt Lake City.  Burton mentions the Danas several times in City of the Saints (e.g. p. 8, 185, 192).  Sixty years later Hale published a pamphlet describing his family’s memories, which he described as “private information”, about the encounter.[117]

83.          Hamerton, Atkins (1804-1857).

Consular Agent at Muscat in 1840 and subsequently Consul from 1841 to 1857, moving in 1843 to Zanzibar with the court of Sayyid Sa’id.  He was born in Ireland at Donneycarney near Dublin, and joined the Bombay Army, in the 15th Native Infantry, as a cadet in 1824.  In 1840 he made a notable journey across Northern Oman.[118]  He spoke both Persian and Arabic,[119]and rose to the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel.  Burton and Speke stayed at Colonel Hamerton’s home in Zanzibar in 1856-7 while preparing for their East African expedition, and both later referred to him often, always in kind terms.  

I can even now distinctly see my poor friend sitting before me, a tall, broad-shouldered, and powerful figure, with square features, dark, fixed eyes, hair and beard prematurely snow-white, and a complexion once fair and ruddy, but long ago bleached ghastly pale by ennui and sickness.  Such had been the effect of the burning heats of Maskat and ‘the Gulf,’ and the deadly damp of Zanzibar, Island and Coast.  The worst symptom in his case—one which I have rarely found other than fatal—was his unwillingness to quit the place which was slowly killing him.  At night he would chat merrily about a remove, about a return to Ireland; he loathed the subject in the morning.  To escape seemed a physical impossibility, when he had only to order a few boxes to be packed, and to board the first home-returning ship.  In this state the invalid requires the assistance of a friend, of a man who will order him away, and who will, if he refuses, carry him off by main force.[120]

After accompanying Burton’s expedition to the coast, he died on board the ship Artemise en route back to Zanzibar, on the 5th July 1857, apparently of cirrhosis of the liver.  Author of Brief notes on His Highness the Imaum of Muskat; and the nature of his relations with the British Government &c. Bombay: Bombay Education Society's Press, 1856.

84.          Hamilton, James “Abbé” (?-1868).

Known as “Abbé Hamilton”.  A catholic convert, at one time he was based in Rome.  Later he travelled extensively, and accompanied Charles Didier on his journey to Mecca.  

He had been born and bred a Protestant, and had turned Roman Catholic.  This, he explained to me, was in the blood hereditary. For centuries his ancestors had all changed, the Catholics becoming Protestants, and the Protestants becoming Catholics.  After his perversion the Abbe went to Rome, and there ran through a considerable fortune without obtaining the rank of "Monsignor," as he had desired.  Shaking the dust of the Eternal City off the soles of his feet, he crossed over to Africa, and for a time became a student of the Koran, a follower of the Prophet, and lived in tents.  He then settled at Tunis, and from that city journeyed to Cairo.[121]

He wrote several books of travel, including Sinai, the Hedjaz and Soudan and Wanderings in North Africa (London: John Murray, 1856).  He met Burton in Cairo, and Burton refers to him as ‘Abbé Hamilton’ in the Pilgrimage and elsewhere.  Hamilton mentions their journey together in his Sinai.  He is said to have been sentenced to death by the Bey of Tunis but, while en route to Istanbul for execution, bribed sailors to pass a message to the British Consul, who found him imprisoned in a barrel on the ship.  Afterwards he settled in Paris, and was a noted antiquarian.  He died at Pau in France, on 9th November 1868.[122]  He is sometimes confused with James Hamilton (1814-1867) the Presbyterian minister and prolific author, who was not a traveller.

85.          Hankey, Frederick (1821-1882).[123]

An English sado-masochist and bibliophile based in Paris, a son of Colonel Sir Frederick Hankey G.C.M.G. (1774-1855) of the 50th Foot and the Chief Secretary “Lieutenant Governor” of Malta, by his second marriage to “a lady who was a native of Corfu”.[124]  The Hankeys however were an extended clan of bankers, originally goldsmiths, rather than soldiers.  

Frederick, who was born in Corfu, joined the Scots Fusileer Guards on 13th July 1841, after a brief spell in the Civil Service—he had been submitted for election to the Statistical Society on 19th November 1838, and was admitted as a fellow on the 19th December.[125]  He purchased the rank of Lieutenant in the 63rd Regiment of Foot on 31st March 1843, and served in Malta as an aide-de-camp to Lieut.-General Sir Patrick Stuart.  On the 8th of December 1846 he went on half-pay, presumably sick leave, in which state he remained until on the 16th June 1848 he switched regiments, buying into the 75th Foot as a Lieutenant.  By the end of the year though he had completely resigned from the army, selling his commission.  In the same year he moved to Paris, after which he must have immersed himself in bibliophilia.  On the death of his father in 1855 he inherited the relatively modest sum of 4,000 pounds. 

Hankey was introduced to Burton, at least as early as 1856, through Monckton Milnes, who used Hankey to procure clandestine erotic and deviant literature from Paris,[126] and who noted in his commonplace book for 1857-1860, “Hankey’s love of cruel enjoyment & his strong sense of the wickedness of killing animals for food”.[127]  Hankey sometimes used the manager of the Covent Garden Italian Opera, Augustus Harris,[128] as a courier—Harris evaded customs officers by concealing objects in the small of his back.  Burton visited Hankey when in Paris, and often referred to him, usually as “poor Hankey”, in his letters to Milnes, joking about bringing him back the skin of a woman from West Africa when he was at Fernando Po.  The letters to Milnes make it clear that Burton did not take Hankey too seriously.  The noted collector of erotica H. S. Ashbee left the following description of him.[129]

If ever there was a bibliomaniac in the fullest sense of the word it was Frederick Hankey. His collection was small, but most choice, and comprised objects (among others may be mentioned what he was pleased to call the sign of his house, viz., a most spirited marble by Pradier representing two tribades; he had also a beautiful bronze of a satyr caressing a woman, where caresses with the tongue are not usually bestowed; a ceinture de chasteté, an ivory dildo, &c.) and books, exclusively erotic.  The former do not fall within the scope of the present work, nor did Hankey attach the same importance to them as he did to his books, which consisted of illustrated MS. the best editions and exceptional copies of the most esteemed erotic works, frequently embellished with original drawings, and clothed by the great French binders.  The copies which were not in unsullied bindings of the time, he would have covered by Trautz-bauzonnet, or other binder of undoubted repute, and he designed himself appropriate toolings wherewith to embellish them. He frequently spoke of making a catalogue raisonné of his beloved books, but did not, I believe, put his project into execution.

Hankey was in every respect an original; he never rose until after mid-day, and his hours of reception were after 10 o'clock at night, when he was to be found among his books.  He had fair hair, blue eyes, and an almost feminine expression, and answered in many respects to the descriptions which have reached us of the Marquis de Sade, his favourite author.  He told me he had on one occasion recovered from a serious illness by suddenly obtaining an edition of Justine which he had long sought in vain.  He had a curious habit of repeating himself, which at times rendered his conversation tedious. …  

It was the writer who had the satisfaction of introducing the editor of Le Livre[130] to the collector of the Rue Laffitte, March 9th, 1882.  We had been dining together—Octave Uzanne, Felicien Rops and myself—when it was proposed to look up Hankey and spend the rest of the evening with him.  We reached No 2 Rue Laffitte some time after ten o'clock, and found Hankey in his usual dishabille—short velvet coat, shirt without neck-tie, thin trowsers, thinner socks, and slippers.  There was no fire or other artificial heat, in spite of the low temperature of the atmosphere. Knowing that I was in Paris, my visit was not altogether unexpected, but he would certainly have wished to receive my distinguished friends, especially the terrible creator of the Chevalier Kerhany, with more state.  We were however appreciative guests, and restraint soon gave way to admiration in presence of Hankey's treasures; and our visit was protracted far into the night, or I should say following morning. …

Son of Sir Frederick Hankey, and of his lady of Greek extraction, the subject of this notice was born at Corfu, while his father was governor of the Ionian Islands. He became captain in the Guards, and after retiring from active service, fixed his residence at Paris where he expired June 8th, 1882.  A mutual friend announced to me his death in the following words: “Hankey our friend died suddenly before me last Thursday, he had begun to mend.  He did not think his death imminent and he was not afraid.  He suffocated, without having experienced apparent pain.  We were close for 30 years, he was one of my best friends.  He was buried last Saturday at the Pere Lachaise cemetery "[131]

An more unguarded reminiscence of Hankey by Ashbee was recorded in his diary, in the entry for 8th April 1875:[132]

Spent the afternoon & evening with Mr. F. Hankey among his unique volumes.  His collection is small, but each vol. is a gem either of rarity or choice binding.  Hankey himself is a remarkable man, quite a study, he appears to me like a second de Sade without the intellect.  He has given himself up body & soul to the erotic mania, thinks of nothing else, lives for nothing else.  Nothing is bawdy enough for him, whether in expression, thought or design.  Besides his books, all of which are erotic, this is a sine qua non with him, he has two of the most charming erotic statues which exist, & is further surrounded with ... every other obscene object possible to be procured.  Hankey himself I should take to be about 50 years old, lean, tall, with yellow hair, a white skin, & soft blue eyes, a good forehead, & yet his expression is entirely devoid of energy or determination. In his youth he must have been good-looking, but effeminate, much as the Marquis de Sade is pictured to have been.

The brothers Goncourt met Hankey in Paris in 1862, and without naming him explicitly left their own description of him in their famous Diaries, entirely unaware of the possibility that their legs were being pulled.[133]

Monday, 7 April. - Today I visited a madman, a monster, one of those men teetering on the abyss.   Through him, like a torn veil, I glimpsed an arsenal of abomination, a frightening side of an aristocracy, inured to money, the English aristocracy ferocious in lust, with that licentiousness satisfied only by the suffering of women.  At the Bal de l’Opera, a young Englishman was presented to St. Victor, and to open the conversation told him simply “we do not have as much fun in Paris, London was infinitely superior, in London there was a fine house, the house of Mrs. Jenkins, where there were girls of about thirteen, who were first given lessons and then whipped, the small ones not very hard, oh! but the large ones quite hard.  You could also push pins into them, not very long pins, just as long as that,” and he showed us the tip of his finger. “Yes, we saw the blood! ...”  The young Englishman insouciantly continued: “I am cruel by nature, but I balk at men and animals ... Once, with an acquaintance, I rented a window for a large sum, to see a murderess who was to be hanged, together with some women to assist us—his expression always very decent—at the moment when she would be stretched.  We even suborned the executioner to yank her skirt up when he dropped her! ... But unfortunately the Queen, at the last moment, pardoned her.”[134]

Today St. Victor introduced me to this novel monstrosity.  He is a young man of about thirty years, balding, bulging temples like an orange, eyes clear and sharp blue, with translucent skin revealing a subcutaneous web of veins, head—it's odd—resembling one of those young priests, emaciated and ecstatic, surrounding bishops in old paintings.  An elegant young man with a little stiffness in the arms and mechanical body movements, feverish as if attacked by the beginnings of a disease of the spinal cord, well-bred with fine manners and exquisite gentleness. 

He opened a large, lofty cabinet, containing a curious collection of erotic books, beautifully bound, and while handing me a MEIBOMIUS, Use of flogging in the pleasures of love and marriage, bound by a first-rate bookbinder of Paris with interior tooling representing phalluses, skulls, and tools of torture, which he designed himself, he said: “Ah! this tooling ... no, first the bookbinder would not do it ... So I lent him my books ...Now he makes his wife very unhappy ... he chases little girls[135] ... but I had my tooling.”  And showing us a book ready for binding: “Yes, for this volume I still expect a skin, a skin of a girl ... a friend of mine got me ... You see the tan ... it takes six months to tan ... Do you want to see my skin? ... But that's irrelevant ... would have preferred it to be stripped from a live girl ... Fortunately, I have my friend Dr. Bartsh[136] ... you know, the one who travels in the interior of Africa ... fine, in the massacres ... he promised to procure me a skin like that ... from a living Negress.”

And contemplating, with a manic look, the nails of his hands outstretched before him, he speaks on, he speaks continuously, in a small sing-song voice, stopping and faltering between you, insinuating a cannibalistic spell into your ears.

The human body is not so immutable as it appears to be.  Societies and civilizations reinvent the form of the nude.  The woman depicted in the Cannibal by Cranach,[137] the woman of Parmesan and Goujon, the woman of Boucher and Coustou are of three ages and three female natures.  The first depiction, an embryonic outline, rough-hewn in Gothic sparseness, is the woman of the Middle Ages.  The second form, elongated, svelte in her slenderness, with scrolls and arabesques, Daphne branching, is the Renaissance woman.  The last, small, plump, dimple-grammed quail-chick, is the woman of the eighteenth century.[138]

Algernon Swinburne also knew Hankey, no doubt through Monckton Milnes, and in July 1869 wrote to a friend that “He is the Sadique collector of European fame.  His erotic collection of books, engravings etc. is unrivalled upon earth—unequalled, I should imagine, in heaven.  Nothing low, nothing that is not good and genuine in the way of art and literature is admitted.  There is every edition of every work of our dear and honoured Marquis.  There is a Sapphic group by Pradier of two girls in the very act—one has her tongue up où vous savez,[139] her head and massive hair buried, plunging, diving between the other’s thighs.  It was the sculptor’s last work before he left this world of vulgar corruption for the Lesbian Hades.  May we be found as fit to depart—and may our last works be like this”.

In Paris Hankey appears to have had an interest in an insurance company, “Compagnie d’Assurances sur la vie Impérial”, which the Hankey banking family had been involved with since at least the 1850s.  By 1865 he was listed on their board in their advertisements, billed as a member “of the House of Hankey, London”—previously an “A. Hankey” had been listed by there.  He was also involved with a woman named “Annie” to whom he may have been married, or perhaps she may just have been his mistress.  Her full name appears to have been “Angelina Sophie Vernon Beckett.”  He makes a brief appearance in Felix Whitehurst’s My Private Diary during the Siege of Paris: “saw Fred. Hankey to-day, wandering about in the original white trousers which he used to wear in the guards in 1848—period of last revolution,” and “When the French advanced into the park of Malmaison, they found none thousand Prussians opposed to their three thousand selves; then, as an old Guardsman—Frederick Hankey—observed, of course ‘they retired in the greatest order’.”[140]

After Hankey’s death, Burton dedicated Volume 6 of the Nights to him: “A Message to Frederick Hankey / Formerly Of No. 2, Rue Lafitte, Paris. / My Dear Fred, / If there be such a thing as ‘continuation,’ you will see these lines in the far Spirit-land and you will find that your old friend has not forgotten you and Annie.”

86.          Hare, Augustus John Cuthbert (1834-1903).

English author, popular biographer and minor watercolour painter.  Born in Rome, and educated at Harrow and University College, Oxford, he wrote many European travel guide books based on his tours abroad, and a prolix six-volume series of memoirs Story of My Life (1901).  He was a lifelong bachelor, well-connected socially and known as a raconteur.  He met the Burtons in the early 1870s at Lady Ashburton’s,[141] and also knew of them through Mrs. Adelaide Sartoris, the actress whose recollections of meeting Burton and Swinburne in Vichy 1869 he repeated in his memoirs.

87.          Harris, Frank (1856-1931).

Journalist, editor and notorious author.  Born in Ireland of Welsh parents, but absconded to America as a teenager, eventually graduating in law at the University at Kansas and qualifying for the Kansas Bar.  He returned to England in the early 1880s and edited the Evening News and the Fortnightly Review.  Adopted socialist/anarchist politics, writing a novel, The Bomb (1908), romanticising anarchist violence.  His imaginative book of memoirs My Life and Loves (1925), in which he cast himself as a sexual Olympian, was banned for some time, combining humourless pornography (“love juice”, “man-root”), with colourful anecdotes about the rich and famous he claimed to have known.  Harris first met Burton in the early 1880s, through Verney Lovett Cameron, after Burton returned from the Gold Coast, and later visited him in Trieste.

88.          Herne, George Edward (1822?-1902).

Member of Burton’s Somali Expedition of 1854-5.  Served the Punjaub campaign of 1848-49, including the siege of Mooltan, and the battle of Gujerat.  He was present at the surrender of the Sikh army at Bawul Pindee, and took part in the pursuit of the Afghans to the Khyber Pass (awarded the Medal with two Clasps).  He was also a photographer, and many of his Indian scenes may be found in the British Library collections.  Attained the rank of Lt. Colonel.  His prior military career reads: Ensign 11 Dec. 40; Lt. 24 Jan. 45; Capt. 4 Aug. 55; Major, 14 June 64.  Retired to Gesto Villa, Wardie, near Edinburgh.

89.          Hockley, Frederick (1809-1885).

A British crystal-gazer and follower of the Occultist Francis Barrett.  He was a friend of Kenneth R. H.  Mackenzie and the British Rosicrucians.  He met Burton in 1852 through Captain (later Rear-Admiral) Henry A. Murray, and sold him a crystal and mirror, which Burton wanted as part of ‘medical’ armoury, to take with him on his pilgrimage to Mecca.  He claimed to have communicated with Burton remotely, from London to Cairo, through the mirror.  There is a brief reference to him regarding magic mirrors in Burton’s Lecture to the Spiritualists of 1878.[142]

90.          Hodgson, Colonel Studholme (1805-1890).

Soldier and author, from a military family, many of whose members had confusingly similar names (he was the son of General John Hodgson).  Entered the army in 1819, eventually rising “General Officer Commanding” Ceylon in 1865,[143] and the rank of General in 1876.

Hodgson also wrote the travel book Truths from the West Indies (William Ball: London 1838).  According to The Christian Remembrancer the author was “a furious Whig-Radical,—a decided enemy of the Established Church,—and, for reasons best known to himself, a bitter enemy of the planter.”[144]  Hodgson attacked the planters for their moral conduct and sexual liaisons. 

He was the (natural) father of Studholmina Letitia Marie Hodgson (1833-1902), who later gained a following as an authoress under the name Madame Bonaparte-Ratazzi (or “Cainille Bernard”, Baron Stock” etc.) and kept a literary salon in Paris.  The mother was Princess Letizia Bonaparte (a daughter of Napoleon Bonaparte’s brother Lucien), who had married Sir Thomas Wyse, an Irish politician, in 1822.  Apparently Hodgson “rescued” the Princess from a suicide attempt, prompting the affair.  In 1853 the Gentleman’s Magazine reported the marriage of “Lieut.-Col. Studholme Hodgson, son of the late Gen. and grandson of the late Field Marshal Studholme Hodgson, to Caroline, relict of Sir John Palmer Bruce Chichester, Bart, of Arlington court, Devonshire.”[145]  They do not appear to have had any children by the marriage.

Hodgson is also believed to have been the clandestine author of sado-masochistic literature.  It seems that he started an extensive collection of this material when he was stationed in India.  It is not clear exactly when he met Burton, but it was probably in the early 1850s, perhaps even earlier, in India.  Hodgson, in a letter to Monckton Milnes, wrote that he had given away his collection of curiosities when he was married, and that Burton had received some of the material, which Hodgson now thought was lost.[146] 

I am sometimes sorry that I distributed among friends, on my marriage, a collection of books & sundries which no money could purchase, nor a single life gather together.  I had got them mostly from persons in the higher walks of life too happy at some period or other to get rid of them.  Those I presented to Burton are lost forever, being probably in the possession of the Priests of Meccah, & he poor fellow is I fear in the regions from whence no one returns.  Did you hear he had been assassinated?

This was most likely part of the material that Burton later lost in the Grindlay’s Warehouse fire of 1861 or 1862 and throws some light on the sources of Burtons material for the first time.[147]  As Milnes recorded in his commonplace book, Burton described Hodgson to him as a sadist “delighting in cruelty”, adding “[What a sheik he would have made! Which refinement of torture and pleasure wld. he have invented?”.[148]  Burton’s correspondence with Milnes often refers to Hodgson, but show that they were not in frequent contact. 

1862/04/26. Remember me with love to the amiable trio Hodgson, Bellamy and Hankey—when shall we all meet again?

1863/03/29. I left Hodgson the Guv'r sweating under the pangs of a balked ambition & I should be glad to hear that he has ejected the irrelevant matter.

1865/10/23.  Hodgson will like Ceylon—Lady Bruce I hear has gone with him.

1871/09/26.  I walked on Sunday with old Hodgson—as jolly as ever.

1873/11/05.  What has become of tall Colonel?

Burton later dedicated Volume 1 of the Supplemental Nights to Hodgson: “To whom with more pleasure or propriety can I inscribe this volume than to my preceptor of past times ; my dear old friend, whose deep study and vast experience of such light literature as The Nights made me so often resort to him for good counsel and right direction?  Accept this little token of gratitude, and believe me, with the best of wishes and the kindest of memories.”

Hodgson settled at Argyll Hall, Torquay, where he died on 31st August, 1890.  Isabel records in the Life, presumably from Burton’s diaries: “On the 31st August he deplores the death of his friend, General Studholm[sic] Hodgson”.[149]

Since the publication of Peter Mendes’ survey of Clandestine Erotic Fiction[150] Hodgson has started cropping up in books which deal with Victorian pornography and sexuality, credited as the author of An Experimental Lecture on Flagellation by “Colonel Spanker”, subtitled Descriptive of the exciting and voluptuous pleasures to be derived from crushing and humiliating the spirit of a beautiful and modest girl, delivered in the assembly room of the society, Mayfair.  A full description of this work, which was written circa 1878, is given by HS Ashbee (“Pisanus Fraxi”).  Even Ashbee, who must have read more of this sort of thing than almost anyone else, found it revolting; his full description is appended below.  However, Mendes has muddled the attribution of this work, associating it in passing, on pp. 4 and 5, with Hodgson, but attributing it under his main entry for the book (p. 245) to the pornographic publisher William Lazenby, based on a note by Ashbee stating that “the publisher is the author”.  Likewise, Mendes’ summary entry for Hodgson (p. 11-2) does not attribute The Experimental Lecture to him.  He is credited instead with likely authorship, jointly, of The Pleasures of Cruelty (1886) and Revelries! and Devilries! (1867).  The mistake is significant, since the Experimental Lecture appears to be on a different level, as far as this type of material goes.  With the permission of his son, Ashbee’s own copy of it was destroyed at the turn of the century by the British Museum, which kept only the French translation in its private case of forbidden material.  One should note also that the attribution of the Pleasures to Hodgson does not have any specific evidence to support it, though it is surely plausible.

The use others have made of this misattribution is enlightening.  James McConnachie confidently tells us that Hodgson “gloried under the sobriquet of Colonel Spanker—at least until promoted to the rank of General”[151].  No citation is given, but Mendes was probably the basis for this embroidery.  Ian Gibson repeats it more cautiously, stating that Hodgson appears to have been the author, and cites Mendes explicitly.[152] 

Ashbee describes Revelries and Develries as follows, attributing it to “four Oxford men and an officer in the army”.

Revelries! and Develries!! or Scenes in the Life of Sir Lionel Heythorp, Bt. His Voluptuous Emotions, and Emissions : His Amorous Peculiarities : His Peccant Penchants, for the Bottoms of Bleeding Beauties : and many other strange diversions, never before narrated and now selected, from the Private Diary of the Baronet. With fine Coloured Engravings. London:-Printed for the Booksellers.

8vo. ; size of paper 6s by 44, of letter-press a by 3 inches ; two lines on the title-page; pp. 123 in all; 7 coloured plates, and a frontispiece with two naked women holding birches, and five bare buttocks ; all badly done, and most obscene ; published by W. DUGDALE, in 1867.

It is the joint production of four Oxford men and an officer in the army, whose names must not be divulged; they each wrote a story and then patched them together, making a continuous narrative in three chapters.

In Revelries and Devilries there is, as the title promises abundance of flogging, besides other episodes of the most disgusting nature, not the least remarkable and revolting of which is a visit to a lunatic asylum, in which the erotic idiosyncrasies of the patients are portrayed in the crudest fashion.  The volume terminates with A Night in the Borough, chapter the third, an orgie as filthy and crapulous as any dreamed by DE SADE in his wildest moments.  Although the obscenest words and expressions are employed, the style is rather above the average of such books.

Ashbee also gives the following description of An Experimental Lecture on Flagellation by “Colonel Spanker”,[153] for those who have the stomach.

Size of paper 5 1/2 by 4 1/8, of letter-press 4 5/8 by 2 7/8 inches; no signatures; pp. 81; toned paper; a line on the title-page; a frontispiece with portrait of the heroine, under which are her name and four lines of verse, and 11 coloured, obscene plates, in outline, rough in drawing and execution, by four different artists; price £4 4S.; issue 75 copies; date incorrect, the book having been issued in 1878-79.  The work is comprised in two parts, although a third part was contemplated, to provide for which the last page, p. 81, was struck off in duplicate, the one terminating with" End of Part the Second," the other with three additional lines marrying the heroine, and the word "Finis."  It is from the pen of the publisher.

Of this strange performance, "done for a peculiar school of flagellants, who delight in extreme torture," and" written to order, in obedience to a regular framework of instructions,"

He then gives a description by a third party: “I offer, in preference to any further description of my own, a very thorough analysis kindly furnished me by a brother bibliophile”.

The Experimental Lecture treats, as its title denotes, of the extasy which is supposed to be found in cruelty, both moral and physical.

The emotion of voluptuousness can only be excited by two causes, firstly, when we imagine that the object of our desire approaches our ideal of beauty, or when we see this person experiencing the strongest possible sensations. No feeling is more vivid than that of pain, its shock is true and certain. It never misleads like the comedy of pleasure eternally played by women, and seldom really felt. He who can create upon a woman the most tumultuous impression, he who can best trouble and agitate the female organisation to the utmost, will have succeeded in procuring for himself the highest dole of sensual pleasure."

These remarks contain the quintessence of the whole philosophy which is found argued to exhaustion in the notorious volumes of the Marquis de Sade, where he, in his wild dreams of bloody orgies, phlebotomy, vivisection and torture of all kinds, accompanied by blasphemy, lays so much stress upon the moral humiliation of the victims employed. What he craves for is physical enjoyment caused by the lingering torture to which his unfortunate patients should be subjected, and which generally ends in their death. In this little work, our flagellants succeed in reducing their experiment to the customs of the present day, embracing a long series of torments that are wilfully inflicted upon one person, a sensitive and highly educated young lady. In Justine and Juliette, the number of individuals employed in the orgies and the constant murders, preclude all idea of reality, while here the whole process is so methodically and tersely set out, that we may almost fancy that all is founded on strong facts, the story being so graphically brought home to the astonished reader.

Are we thus to believe that we daily rub shoulders with men who take a secret delight in torturing weak and confiding women, and by so doing can produce erection and consequent emission? Experience proves this to be so, and we could unfortunately quote several recent cases where girls have been tied up to ladders, strapped down to sofas, and brutally flogged, either with birch rods, the bard hand, the buckle-end of a strap, and even a bunch of keys! Some have been warned beforehand that they will be beaten till "the blood comes," pecuniary rewards being agreed upon, others have been cajoled into yielding up their limbs to the bonds and gags by the promise that it is "only a piece of fun." Once fairly helpless in the hands of the flagellating libertine, woe betide them.  These cowards are bent on inflicting the greatest amount of agony possible, and their pleasure is in proportion to the damage done. They seem sometimes at that moment like devils unchained, and howl with delight almost as loudly as the poor girl cries out in pain. And yet immediately their paroxysm is over, they will treat their wretched victim with the utmost kindness, and buttoning up their frock-coats, appear once more as affable, kind gentlemen, for they are all gentlemen by birth who indulge in this awful mania.

Such proceedings are bad enough in all conscience, but what can be said of one who derives pleasure "in crushing and humiliating the spirit," besides the body?  According to Colonel Spanker's horrible theory, we may suppose that no enjoyment can be found in whipping the callous posterior of a match girl, who has been used to rude corrections at the hands of her parents, but only from exposing the delicate nakedness of a real tenderly-nurtured lady, whose mind has been carefully cultured. In order to carry out this diabolical idea, the Colonel rents a house in Mayfair and forms the Society of Aristocratic Flagellants which includes "at least half-a-dozen of the most beautiful and fashionable ladies of the day."

So we see that the author considers that females are also pleased with a little occasional cruelty practised upon one of their own sex. Our blueblooded viragoes are tired of vulgar, consenting victims, who submit to be tortured for the sake of lucre, so the Spanker fiend decoys "a young lady known to most of them, Miss Julia Ponsonby, a lovely young blonde of seventeen, whose widowed mother being compelled to go abroad for a time, is seeking for a suitable lady to whose charge she can entrust her daughter during her absence."  The suitable lady is merely a procuress to the Society, and Miss Julia soon finds herself a prisoner in the house in Mayfair, the conservatory of which is fitted up as a Lecture Hall, where in the midst of flowering plants, fountains, and other luxurious surroundings, stands the apparatus "something like a large pair of steps, only made of mahogany," to which the victims are attached when undergoing punishment. [Similar in construction to The Berkeley Horse, of which an engraving will be found at p. xliv of Index Librorum Prohibitorum ]  The Colonel appears on the scene, and after tantalizing Julia, who treats him with the scorn he deserves, begins by terrifically slapping her naked bottom, then takes other “dreadful liberties,” and sends her to bed.  The next morning he awakes her, rod in hand, and despite her shame and terror, assists at her toilette, which he aids by sundry cuts with the birch.  When half dressed, he forces her to walk up a ladder, holding open her own drawers, while strokes of the merciless birch enforce obedience.  Her executioner makes her stand on her head against the wall, and then leaves her.  She is now decked out in an elegant ball costume, and after being flogged with a ladies' riding whip on the bare shoulders, is presented to the eagerly expectant company of flagellants: six ladies in masks and dominoes, and four gentlemen with false beards.  The Colonel now expounds his ideas and theories, interspersed with blows, to which Julia has to submit, and he gives the whole secret of the delight of flagellation, much more fully explained than we have ever met with it before.  She is now forced to submit to the indecent caresses of all the company, the little whip is put into requisition once more, and she is slowly undressed, being still tortured at every stage of her toilette.  She is pricked with a pin, pinched, and made to recount several erotic experiences of her school-days.  Miss Debrette, one of the company, is now placed upon the horse, and Julia is forced to flog the lady, who likes it exceedingly, although ill-treated until she bleeds all over.  More frightful indecencies, to prove that “the floggee as well as the flogger experiences voluptuous pleasure," are perpetrated, and now begins what the Colonel grimly calls "flagellation in earnest."  Julia is tied up to the ladder with her back to the rungs, and this concludes the first part.  The second portion opens by the relation of Miss Debrette's experiences of flagellation. A male member of the company follows suit, and after their cynical and extraordinary confessions, Julia is tortured again, a bundle of stinging nettles being now used. Her position on the ladder denotes the manner in which this vile description is given.  She is turned with her back to her pitiless audience, and after more tales of torture related by the Colonel, she undergoes fresh anguish from a kind of cowhide, until she almost faints.  They play leap-frog over her poor bruised back, and after that variety to their disgusting entertainment, we are treated to a story of a wife who was humiliated and brutalized on her wedding night.  Now a leather scourge tipped with fine steel points is called into play while the victim is turned upside down on the ladder.  A general melee takes place, which is utterly impossible to describe; suffice it to say that each gentleman flagellant satisfies the lascivious feelings which all this cruelty is supposed to excite, of course at Julia's expense. She has again to suffer a fearful onslaught with a heavy riding-whip, and a still greater torture than all-she is brutally ravished, with every addition of bitter humiliation and savage cruelty.

This book, which we can fairly assert is the most coldly cruel and unblushingly indecent of any we have ever read, stands entirely alone in the English language. It seems to be the wild dream, or rather nightmare, of some vicious, used-up, old rake, who, positively worn out, and his hide tanned and whipped to insensibility by diurnal flogging, has gone mad on the subject of beastly flagellation.  The above analysis only gives the scaffolding of the work, as we have avoided copying any of the details, which are too minutely erotic for our pen.  The boldest descriptions are given, and every stage of the poor girl's agony, every movement, blush and shriek are dwelt and expatiated upon.  Her beauty forms the subject of the most violently crude remarks, and nothing seems left undone to prove that only a Nero or a de Sade can really enjoy the slightest sensual enjoyment.  We may console ourselves by thinking that the book is too deliberately horrible to be dangerous, for this mixture of gloating debauchery, inseparable from mental anguish, and bodily, cold-blooded, slaughter-house ill-usage, is merely a highly-coloured, over-wrought phantasy of obscene ideas.  It is well written, and the author has evidently taken great pains to bring out every point into proper relief, as if he intended to convince the reader of the absolute reality of the repulsive system he so amply expounds.

91.          Hooker, William Jackson (1785-1865).

Eminent Botanist, traveller, Gentleman-scientist, and Fellow of the Royal Society.  Author of many scientific books, and the scientific travel narrative Tour in Iceland (1809).  Burton corresponded with Hooker, being known to him since at least the early 1850s, when still in India, and sent him botanical specimens and queries.  Hooker had no formal botanical training before becoming Professor of Botany at Glasgow University, between 1820 and 1840, through the influence of Sir Joseph Banks.  Subsequently he was Director of Kew Gardens, where he was succeeded by his son Joseph Dalton Hooker (see below).

92.          Hooker, Joseph Dalton (1817-1911).

An eminent English botanist and explorer, who trained in medicine at Glasgow University, and was the son of the botanist Sir William Jackson Hooker (1785-1865), whom he succeeded as Director of the Royal Botanical Gardens at Kew.  After qualifying as a doctor at Glasgow he joined the Ross Expedition to the Arctic, between 1839 and 1843.  He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society and became a close confidant of Charles Darwin.  Burton mentioned both Hookers frequently in his works and corresponded with Joseph Dalton Hooker about plant specimens, but the principal connection between the two was a result of the Gustav Mann affair (see the entry for Mann below).

93.          Hunt, George Samuel Lennon.

British Consul at Pernambuco and Rio de Janeiro.  He was a member of the Anthropological Society and the Royal Geographical Society (1861).  “Lennon” is sometimes given as “Lennox”.  Burton uses “Lennon”—see Highlands of the Brazil vol. 1, p. 20.  Burton met Hunt in Brazil and mentioned him often in his correspondence with Albert Tootal (see Volume 2).

94.          Hutchinson, Thomas Joseph (1820-1885).

Consul at Callao in Peru, previously Governor of Fernando Po in 1857, then Consul (and briefly acting Governor) till Burton replaced him.  Burton had crossed his path in South America in 1868, see Hutchinson’s reminiscence in Volume 2, from his memoir Two Years in Peru (London: Sampson Low, 1873).  Hutchinson published several other books, including Impressions of Western Africa (London: Longmans, 1858), dealing with his time at Fernando Po.

95.          Hyndman, Henry Mayers (1842-1921).

English journalist and socialist, son of a barrister.  He remembered meeting Burton several times in the company of George Percy Badger, most likely in the late 1870s or early 1880s (see Volume 3).  Isabel Burton mentions him in her AEI “Mr. Hyndman has lately startled the India House by his shocking details concerning the semi-starvation of India. In English society people say, “ Nonsense ! India poor! why, it was never richer.” But this certainly will be altered and remedied as soon as it is made known. I am John Bull enough to believe that England never sins with her eyes open.”[154]

96.          Ionides, Luke (1837–1924).

Stockbroker, from a wealthy Greek family in London who were known as patrons of the arts.  Son of Alexander Constantine Ionides (1810-1890).  Ionides knew Whistler, William Morris, Swinburne and others.  Married Elfrida Elizabeth Bird, a daughter of Dr. George Bird, who had been raised by Bird’s sister Alice “Lallah” Bird.  Burton met him in London in 1869, most likely through Dr. Bird, shortly before going to Damascus, and both Burtons maintained a long correspondence with him.  The Burtons tried to interest Ionides in their Gold mining scheme in Midian, hoping that he would put up capital for a stock-boosting exercise.  He left an important memoir of the Burtons (see Volume 3).

97.          Iturburu, Atilano Calvo.

Assistant Judge and Secretary to the Spanish Government of Fernando Po.  Translated Prescott’s Ferdinand and Isabella, and Livingstone’s Missionary Travels and Researches in South Africa, into Spanish.  Accompanied Mann and Burton on their December 1861 to January 1862 climbing expedition in the Cameroons mountains, described in Burton’s Abeokuta (1863).  Burton often mentioned him in his correspondence with Frank Wilson (see Volumes 1) and part-dedicated Mission to Gelele (1864) to him.

98.          James, Frank Linsly (1851-1890).

An explorer and botanist from Liverpool, of American parentage.  Between 1884 and 1885 James travelled in the horn of Africa with James Godfrey Thrupp (1849-1913), a surgeon known for his service in the Zulu wars, collecting botanical specimens.  They met Burton in Cairo en route to the horn, describing the encounter in their subsequent book The Unknown Horn of Africa (1888, see Volume 3), which Burton had an annotated copy of in his personal library.[155] 

99.          Johnston, Sir Harry (1858-1927).

Explorer and colonial administrator of Scottish extraction, who had studied at King’s College in London at the Royal Academy.  He received the gold medal of the RGS, and while serving as a colonial administrator became a prolific travel writer, colonial historian and novelist.  He was the first Commissioner of Nyasaland (modern day Malawi) and briefly administered Uganda at the turn of the 19th century.  He met Burton in London in 1885, through Oswald Crawfurd, and idolized him, leaving an affectionate reminiscence in his memoirs (see Volume 3).  Isabel recorded that on their visit to London in 1888 “we had the pleasure of seeing our friend H. H. Johnston, Consul in West Africa and artist, one of the most charming and sympathetic of men.”[156]

100.      Jones, Herbert (?–1928).

Of Irish extraction.  Originally intended to train as an artist but his eyesight failed.  Chief Librarian at the Central Library in Kensington, 1887-1924.  Began his career at James Heywood Library, 106 Notting Hill Gate as an assistant.  See the obituary in The Library World, 1929.  Jones left a notable description of Burton’s personal library and his activities as a book collector (see Volume 3), though it is not clear if he ever met him.

Portraits.

Figure 4.  Wilfrid Scawen Blunt

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Figure 5.  Dr. F. Grenfell Baker.

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Figure 6.  Samuel Selig de Kusel.

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Figure 7.  Earl of Dunraven.

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Figure 8.  Frank Wilson.

Figure 9.  James Hain Friswell.

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Figure 10.  Joseph Dalton Hooker.

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Figure 11.  Sir Harry Johnston.

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Figure 12.  Colonel Chaillé Long.

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Figure 13.  Edward Thomas McCarthy.

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Figure 14.  Justin McCarthy.

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Figure 15.  The Tichborne Claimant.

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Figure 16.  Ouida.

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Figure 17.  Albert Leighton Rawson.

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Figure 18.  Frederick James Stevenson.

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Figure 19.  Algernon Swinburne.

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Figure 20.  Cecil John Rhodes and protégés, including Alex. Colquhoun.

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Figure 21.  Gustav Mann.

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Figure 22.  Julian Arnold.

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Figure 23.  Armin Vambery.

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Figure 24.  John Passmore Edwards.

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Figure 25.  Verney Lovett Cameron

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Figure 26.  Lord Houghton (Monckton Milnes).

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Figure 27.  John Hanning Speke.

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Figure 28.  Francis Galton.

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Figure 29.  Lord Redesdale (Bertram Mitford).

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Figure 30.  Charles Francis Tyrwhitt Drake.

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Figure 31.  Dr. Norton Shaw of the RGS.

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Register: K-Z.

101.      Kingsford, Anna Bonus (1846-1888).

Animal rights campaigner, vegetarian, feminist and theosophist, closely associated with Edward Maitland (1824-1897).  She studied medicine in Paris and obtained a qualification there, but suffered from poor health herself.  Kingsford and Maitland met the Burton in the late 1880s in London, and Maitland left a brief reminiscence (see Volume 3). 

102.      Kirby, William Forsell (1844-1912).

A self-educated lepidopterist, linguist and folklorist from Leicester, who worked in the Natural History Department of the British Museum from 1879 until his retirement in 1909.  He was the son of a banker.  Author of a translation of a Finnish epic Kalevala: The Land of Heroes (1907), An Elementary Text-book of Entomology (1885) and several other scientific works.  He assisted Burton when he was writing the Arabian Nights, supplying the Bibliography of the various editions of the Nights which appears in the tenth volume, and other appendices. 

Kirby had written to Burton in 1885 to volunteer information about the Nights and they developed a productive working relationship.  However Kirby was not overawed by Burton and complained to Thomas Wright that “At the British Museum, Burton seemed more inclined to talk than to work.  I thought him weak in German and when I once asked him to help me with a Russian book, he was unable to do so. … He told me that he once sat between Sir Henry Rawlinson and a man who had been Ambassador at St. Petersburg, and he spoke to one in Persian, and the other in Russian, but neither of them could understand him.  I have never, however, been able to make up my mind whether the point of the story told against him or against them.  Although Burton was a student of occult science, I could never lead him to talk about crystals or kindred subjects ; and this gave me the idea that he was perhaps pledged to secrecy.  Still, he related his experiences freely in print.”[157]

103.      Kirk, John (1832-1922).

A physician, naturalist and explorer from Scotland, trained at the University of Edinburgh.  Kirk served in the Crimean War as a physician, then accompanied Livingstone on his Second Zambezi expedition from 1858 to 1863.  Went to Zanzibar as medical officer, eventually becoming Consul General in 1873.  Vice-President of the RGS 1891-4.  Published widely on Botany and Zoology.  Burton maintained a friendly correspondence with Kirk (see Volume 2) and mentioned him frequently in his works concerning Africa.

104.      Kirkwood, Roy.

Possibly from Glasgow.  In charge of English Factories at Glasstown and Olomi in West Africa.  Also resident agent for the Glasgow firm of Taylor and Laughland in West Africa.  Burton had extensive contact with him when he was consul at Fernando Po and mentions him frequently in his correspondence with Frank Wilson; he is also mentioned in Two Trips To Gorilla Land (1876).[158]  Apparently the factories burned down in a rum fire, which a missionary interpreted as just reward for Sabbath trading: “You will recollect that in my letter of last month I noted the landing of goods on the Sabbath.  The same week, a vessel belonging to the same firm landed ten thousand gallons of rum.  Last Monday night, or rather at half-past one o'clock Tuesday morning, we were startled from sleep by an unusual sound. I thought for a moment that it was on the mission premises, but looked out and saw a factory on fire. Three and a half tons of powder had exploded, and in a few moments that 10,000 gallons of rum was sending fiery flames towards heaven, and pouring streams of fire into the river.  Blessed flames those, which kept the people at a distance, or I know not what would have been the consequence! In the course of one half hour, Taylor, Laughland, & Co.'s factory was entirely consumed.  To the leeward of this was R. Kirkwood's factory, which went, and Dolluer, Potter, & Co.'s followed,—all in ashes in less than one hour; more than $50,000!”.[159]

105.      Krapf, Johann Ludwig (1810-1881).

German missionary, traveler and linguist, a Lutheran trained at the Basel Missionary Institute, from Tübingen in the Protestant dominated Württemberg,  His book Travels, Researches, and Missionary Labours in Eastern Africa (Stuttgart, 1858; London, 1860) described his time in Ethiopia (1937-1842) and the Mombas Mission (1844-1845), under the auspices of the Church Missionary Society. 

At Mombas Johannes Rebmann was a colleague, and after Rebmann saw a snow capped mountain when travelling in the interior in 1848, Krapf travelled to see Mount Kenya and Kilimanjaro the following year.  Their reports caused prolonged controversy in Europe, where it was thought that snow was unlikely in the Tropics, and some proposed that the missionaries had only seen sun glinting off rocks. 

The Mombas Missionaries were ultimately vindicated, but they had less success in the sphere of religious conversion than they did in the geographical, and Krapf returned home, discouraged, to settle in Germany in the late 1850s, though he continued to make occasional trips back to Africa until his death in 1881. 

Burton met Krapf in Cairo in 1853, when Krapf was en route to Europe, and mentions him several times in correspondence with Norton Shaw (see Volume 1).  That meeting encouraged Burton’s first serious interest in the Nile sources.

106.      Larking, John Wingfield (1801-1891).

Merchant at Alexandria, Consul from 1838-1841, succeeding Robert Thurburn, a relative by marriage.  He was son of John Larking (1755-1838) of Clare-house, Maidstone, Kent, who had been Sherif of Kent in 1808 and had married Dorothy Style.  Larking was also an Egyptologist, collecting antiquities, and a keen gardener.    On his retirement to England in 1858, he settled in semi-Oriental style in “The Firs,” Lee, Kent.[160]  Burton stayed with Larking in Alexandria on his journey to Mecca in 1853, in a “little detached pavilion” in the large garden of the Larking/Thurburn residence “The Sycamores”, on the Mahmudiyah canal, having met him en route to Alexandria onboard the Bengal.[161]  It was Larking who got him a passport “Through ignorance which might have cost me dear but for friend Larking’s weight with the local authorities, I had neglected to provide myself with a passport in England.”[162]  Larking was married to Rosina Teresa Elizabetta Tibaldi (1805-1866) who died in England at the Firs.[163]

Burton frequently mentions Larking, a fellow member of the Athenaeum Club, in correspondence, and Volume VII of the Nights is dedicated to him, as “an old and valued friend”.  Thus to Norton Shaw he wrote “If you see Larking pray give him my best salaams & tell him my throat is all safe still.  What fun we had on board the steamer!” (1853/11/16).

See the obituary by his gardener in The Gardeners' Chronicle.[164]

107.      Laughland, Edward. 

A trader at Fernando Po, employed as the West African agent of the Glasgow firm of Taylor and Laughland, though according to Burton he was actually no relation to John Laughland, a partner in the firm.  John Laughland had been Acting Consul in 1861 before Burton’s arrival, with Edward as his Secretary, but had gone back home to Glasgow, leaving Edward as the firm representative for West Africa.[165]  Edward Laughland was subsequently a Vice-Consul for Burton in Fernando Po during his frequent absences, and is most notable for his role in the “Brig Harriett” affair. 

The “Harriett” had been the property of William Johnson, a British subject from Sierra Leone, and on his death in May 1863 was put up for sale by his heirs—Pratt, Taylor and Jarrett, all of Sierra Leone—to recover claims against the estate.  The ship had put into Fernando Po in distress in May 1863 and had been declared unseaworthy.  Laughland was Acting Consul at the time and assumed charge of staffing and provisioning the ship himself while it was laid up in the harbour.  In August of 1863 Burton was mailed Power of Attorney by the heirs to sell it, but it is not clear exactly when he saw the request, as he was away for most of this period.  He sold the ship at auction on November 21st, just after returning from the Congo, with his factotum Selim Aga acting as auctioneer, then left for Dahome  It was bought by none other than Edward Laughland himself, ostensibly acting for William Brash and James Dick of the firm William Taylor and Company, Glasgow.  He paid just 280 pounds for it.[166]  Brash and Taylor were apparently proxies for the firm of Laughland and Taylor, and so it had really been sold to the Laughland business network.  

Laughland however paid no money to the ship’s owners, taking possession of the ship and refitting it.  After the heirs repeatedly demanded payment, through the Foreign Office and Burton, Laughland countered with a list of expenses he claimed, on behalf of Taylor and Laughland, for provisioning the ship from May 2 to November 23, including salmon, lobster, claret, brandy, potted meats and other items.[167]  The list of expenses, which stretched back before the death of Johnson, amounting to just over 309 pounds, with another 11 pounds in commission.  This meant that the heirs actually owed 40 pounds to Laughland and Taylor.  In effect, he had seized their asset.  The heirs promptly engaged a lawyer, William Rainy, to fight the case.  Rainy, who was of mixed race, was hostile to Burton, having taken strong exception to his comments about Sierra Leone and (what he described as) its litigious population, in Wanderings in West Africa

The F. O. held Burton liable for the 280 pounds and docked his salary to get the money back.  After appeals and counter-appeals to the Foreign Secretary, the West Coast Commodore was asked to conduct an enquiry at Fernando Po, and his report strongly argued that Laughland had contrived to deliberately overcharge for the maintenance of the Harriet, also suggesting that the auction itself was rigged, since the ship was soon back at sea with minimal refitting after Laughland had bought it, despite its advertised unseaworthiness.  All this was an abuse of Laughland’s role as Vice Consul.  The report did not find Burton in any way personally connected with any of this. Before the auction, Burton had been away on private business (his trip to the Congo River), during which time he was responsible for the actions of his Vice Consul.  However, the problem for the Foreign Office was that after the auction was concluded, during the time the purchase money was at issue, Burton was away at Dahome on official business, making the claim that he was solely responsible for the actions of his Vice Consul problematic. 

A compromise was ultimately reached whereby the Foreign Office agreed to repay Burton 400 pounds for repairs he had made out of his own pocket to the run-down Consulate at Fernando Po, from which the 280 pound charge from the “Harriett” sale was deducted.  Laughland was also barred from acting as Consul ever again.  Burton responded furiously that both he and Laughland had acted properly at all times, and that neither he nor Laughland were asked to submit evidence at the inquiry—they were not there—and moreover, very forcefully, that Rainy was scoring political points out of the case.  Technically Burton may have had a point, given that Rainy had published a pamphlet The Censor Censured (1865) suggesting that Burton profited personally from the transaction, but that was irrelevant to the issue at hand, as the F.O. immediately concluded. 

From the evidence in the Foreign Office files, which is all we have to go on, it is hard to avoid the conclusion that Edward Laughland deliberately abused his official position to make a windfall—the ship’s Captain during this period was actually one of his own employees, and moreover denied receiving more than a portion of the wages that Laughland expensed for him.  There is no reason to believe that Burton received any money himself from the affair, which the F.O. accepted at all stages.  The problem was that Burton was responsible for Laughland’s actions when he appointed him to act in his name while away on private business.

108.      Leighton, Frederic (1830-1896).

Wealthy and highly regarded English painter and sculptor, associated with the Pre-Raphaelites, who had studied art on the Continent and was the son and grandson of physicians.  President of the Royal Academy in 1878, he was accorded the title of Baron Leighton of Stretton in 1896.  He is noted for his portrait of Burton, which was painted at various sittings at Leighton’s house in 2 Holland Park Road between 1872 and 1875, and finished in 1876.  Leighton holidayed with Swinburne and the Burtons at Vichy in 1869, and later visited the Burton’s former cottage at Salihiyyah, outside Damascus, with Charles Tyrwhitt Drake, in 1873—after they had been recalled to London.  It is possible that Swinburne, who was closely connected with the Pre-Raphaelites, introduced the Burtons to Leighton, or that they first met in Vichy through Mrs. Sartoris; Leighton may have thought of painting Burton as early as that meeting of 1869.

Leighton started his well-known portrait, now on display in the National Portrait Gallery, in 1872, for no fee.  Isabel remembered that “Sir Frederick Leighton began to paint Richard on the 26th of April, and it was very amusing. Richard was so anxious that he should paint his necktie and his pin, and kept saying to him every now and then, ‘Don’t make me ugly, don’t, there’s a good fellow;’ and Sir Frederick kept chaffing him about his vanity, and appealing to me to know if he was not making him pretty enough.”[168] 

According to Edgcumbe Staley, “Leighton made up his mind—firmly as was his wont—how he meant to paint his subject.  Burton's will was no less inflexible; so, to put Leighton on his mettle, he kept on looking up from the position in which he had been placed, and by violent contortions of the face jeopardized the idea Leighton had formulated.  Now and then he interrupted the solemnity of the sitting by remarking with mock gravity, ‘Mind you make me nice!’  Leighton responded by hearty laughter.”[169]

Leighton only completed the portrait in 1876 and exhibited it at the Royal Academy.  Burton also helped Leighton to procure the Arabic tiles he used to decorate his unusual house in Kensington, now a museum, and when they were in London often visited him.  Correspondence survives between the two men (see Volume 2).

109.      Levant Herald.

Burton liked to place articles in newspapers under pseudonyms, a practice he started in India (or perhaps earlier) and kept up all through his career.  While stationed in Damascus he published a stream of articles as “Our Correspondent” in the Levant Herald.  These articles were full of inside information and had Burton’s fingerprints all over them (“Holy Land on the brain”, the war in Paraguay etc.) despite some obfuscation.  Isabel helped to write many of these, and kept copies with spelling corrections by Burton and her own annotations (one such annotation is “not from us”, indicating that the others were).  An intriguing sequence of these articles, several of which are about a violent altercation involving Isabel, is given in Volume 2.

110.      Leveson, Henry Astbury (1828-1875).

English sportsman, author and soldier, attaining the rank of Major.  Fought in the Crimean War, but criticised its conduct.  Served with Garibaldi in 1860, and raised a native corps in Lagos in 1863.   Invalided by a bullet wound which never healed, but nevertheless accompanied Napier’s expedition to Abyssinia in 1868.  Wrote many accounts of his hunting exploits as “H. A. L., the Old Shekarry”.  See the Memoir of Leveson by “H.F.” in Leveson’s Sport in Many Lands [170]  Leveson visited Burton at the consulate in Fernando Po in the 1860s and left a reminiscence, see Volume 1.

111.      Lynslager, James (1810-1864).

A Governor (Superintendent) of Fernando Po, 1854-1855.  Burton refers to him several times by his nickname “Daddy Jim”.  According to the trader John Whitford:[171]

The successor to Governor Beecroft, who officiated until the Spaniards took charge, was called sometimes Governor James Lynslager, but oftener "Daddy Jim."  He was a native of Holland, was wrecked when a boy and cast forth from the sea with a broken leg, and therefore became addicted to a wooden one.  He waxed wealthy, married a black wife, in accordance with the rites of the Church of England, of which he was a strict member, and, as a mark of welcome and friendship to his numerous acquaintances, was wont to suddenly unship his timber limb and throw it at their heads.  He was a most hospitable but very eccentric host.  If a dinner prepared for guests did not suit his idea of correctness, he did not hesitate to destroy it, which spoliation invariably caused at first surprise, followed by merriment.  After this he naturally insisted upon "pot luck," which was thoroughly enjoyed. It did not matter whether those whom he entertained were admirals or skippers; if anything went wrong "Daddy Jim" drew the cloth, and nobody could prevent subsequent assault and battery upon somebody blameable, unless, by stealing his loose leg, he was reduced to hopping about like a lame rooster.  I met him shortly before his death at the '62 Exhibition, and waited to catch the leg, as, upon observing African features, he at once, full of joy, reclined upon a sofa and placed his hands convenient to loosen his missile, but, suddenly recalling to mind that he had mounted a cork substitute, curiously fastened and concealed by a broadcloth cover corresponding with the genuine article, his display of feeling found vent and satisfaction in the nearest refreshment-room.  When the Spaniards came, "Daddy Jim" retired into private life, after which Hutchinson, Burton, Charles Livingstone, brother to the great African explorer, and Hopkins, succeeded as British consuls […]

112.      Mackenzie, Kenneth Robert Henderson (1833-1886).

Kenneth Robert Henderson Mackenzie was a Freemason from Deptford in London, the son of a surgeon.  He was a member of both the Anthropological Society and the Royal Asiatic Society, and is often mentioned in their journals.  He also knew the spiritualist Frederick Hockley.  Author of Burmah and the Burmese (2 volumes, 1853), a Life of Bismarck (1870), and the Royal Masonic Encyclopedia (1877).  Mackenzie was a member of the Cannibal Club, but may have known Burton at an earlier date, possibly through Hockley.  He claimed that many of the Cannibal Club members were Freemasons.

113.      Mann, Gustav (1836–1916).

German botanist, originally from Hanover, who was employed at Kew Gardens.  Mann took part in an expedition to West Africa to collect specimens, in the early 1860s, at the direction of Sir William Jackson Hooker, the Director of Kew Gardens.  Mann met Burton in Lagos, when Burton had just arrived on the West Coast in 1861, and they agreed to explore the volcanic Cameroons mountains together.  In December of 1861 to January 1862 a joint expedition with the Rev. Albert Saker was successfully made, but led to a minor controversy between the two men when Mann claimed that Burton had unfairly understated Mann’s role in the expedition, and Burton claimed that Mann had tried to steal the honour by breaking an agreement to set off together to climb the highest peak.  Mann later returned to Germany in 1892 after working for nearly 30 years in the Indian Forest Service (1863-1892).

114.      Markham, Sir Clements Robert (1830-1916).

English Artic explorer, author, and geographer, the son of a Vicar.  He joined the Royal Navy as a cadet in 1844, and served on the relief mission of 1850 to search for Sir John Franklin, whose doomed expedition of 1845 had tried to find the Northwest Passage.  He left the Navy to work in the India Office, leading an expedition to Peru in search of cinchona quinine-bark, and joining the Abyssinia Expedition of 1867, among others.  He was an influential member of the Royal Geographical Society, replacing Norton Shaw as Secretary in 1863, and eventually becoming the president in 1893.  His is chiefly remembered for his enthusiastic support of exploration expeditions, rather than educational initiatives he considered “doctrinaire”.  Author of many books, including Franklin's Footsteps (1852), Travels in Peru and India (1862), and The fifty years' work of the Royal geographical society (1881).

Markham knew Burton well through the RGS and left an important reminiscence (see Volume 3) in his unpublished history of the RGS.  He also collaborated with Burton through the Hakluyt Society.  Some correspondence between the two men survives (see Volume 2).

115.      Martin, Sir James Ranald FRS (1796-1874).

Founding Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons.  Born in the Isle of Skye, trained at St George’s Hospital and the Windmill Street School of Medicine.  Influential Surgeon in the Bengal Army, 1817-1842.  He retired to London, was knighted in 1860, and died of bronchitis at Upper Brook Street in 1874.  Author of, among other works, On the Influence of Tropical Climates on European Constitutions (1841).  See J. Fayrer Inspector-general Sir James Ranald Martin (London: A. D. Innes, 1897).  Burton met Martin at Bathurst and mentions him in Wanderings.[172]  The extant correspondence suggests they were on friendly terms (see Volume 1).

116.      Massey, Gerald (1828-1907).

Poet, Journalist, autodidact and amateur Egyptologist who was interested in psychic talk and spiritualism.  Born in Tring to an illiterate labourer and a pious mother, he was forced to earn a living in the mills at an early age.  After moving to London, where he worked as an errand boy and at other menial jobs, he educated himself entirely through reading on and off the job.  In early adulthood he was attracted to Chartism and to the Christian Socialism of F. D. Maurice.  He initially made his name through multiple books of politically-aware poetry, but could not earn a living and was only financially secure after he was awarded a Civil List pension in 1863.  By then he had moved to Edinburgh, and taken up Spiritualism.  In later years he switched to long theosophical treatises on the supposed Ancient History of Egypt, starting with the Book of Beginnings (London: Williams & Norgate, 1881) and culminating in the twelve volume Ancient Egypt: The Light of the World (London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1907).  Burton and Massey corresponded extensively about Camoens and Egyptology, and he appears often in the Book of the Sword.  Several annotated copies of Massey’s books were retained in Burton’s personal library.  Burton may have met him through meetings of the Spiritualist Society, which Burton was invited to address, and occasionally contacted (in more traditional ways, i.e. written letters).

117.      McCarthy, Edward Thomas (1856?–1943).

English mining engineer, graduated from the Royal School of Mines in 1877.  Died at age 86 in Swindon, after a long career in mining North America, West Africa, China, Australia, New Zealand, South America and South Africa.  Met Burton in West Africa in the early 1880s when Burton and Cameron were in search of Gold Mines, and left an unflattering impressions of Burtons’ practical knowledge of mining engineering (see Volume 3).  He is quoted briefly in To the Gold Coast for Gold,[173] and some manuscript material by him can be found in Burton’s personal library.

118.      McCarthy, Justin (1830–1912).

Catholic Anglo-Irish author, journalist and politician.  He was born and educated in Cork City.  In the 1850s and 1860s he worked in Liverpool and London as a journalist, becoming a parliamentary reporter, a public lecturer and a frequent magazine contributor.  He was a Member of Parliament for Longford and other constituencies, as a moderate Home Rule Liberal (1879-1896) and Parnellite.  He was also the author of various novels, biographies and popular histories.  McCarthy knew Burton through the London clubs of the 1860s, and left more than one affectionate reminiscence (see Volume 2).

119.      McCarthy, Justin Huntly (1859-1936).

Son of Justin McCarthy (1830-1912, see above), educated at University College London, who also became an MP (1884-1892), Home Ruler, historian, novelist and poet.  He published prolifically, and collaborated with Isabel Burton, and wrote verses on the death of RFB which appear on the tomb in Mortlake.

120.      Milnes, Monckton (Lord Houghton) (1809-1885).

Poet and politician, educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he was an early member of the secretive Apostles.  He travelled in the East in the 1840s, running into Mansfield Parkyns, recently sent down from Cambridge, on the Nile.  Florence Nightingale refused his offers of marriage.  He was made Lord Houghton in 1863. 

Milnes met Burton at some time in the early 1850s—either through the RGS itself, or perhaps later through Admiral Henry Murray’s sessions for travellers in his Monday evenings at home at “D4, the Albany”—and they formed a lasting and intimate friendship.  Milnes, who had a special interest in travelers—he took up Francis Galton for a while on his return from Africa in 1852—hosted a regular “10 o’clock breakfast” for the like-minded at his house in 16 Upper Brook street, London.  He brought Burton into contact with figures like Swinburne, Hankey and others.  In turn Burton introduced him to characters like Colonel Studholme Hodgson, and possibly Edward Vaux Bellamy (or the other way around).  Milnes’ now mostly forgotten poetry included an anonymous set of verses from 1871 on flagellation, the Rodiad, a subject he corresponded extensively with Swinburne about.  Burton suggested a better name for its earlier version, the “Betuliad”:  “Hankey … showed me also a little poem entitled the Betuliad.  I liked much every part except the name—you are writing for a very very small section who combine the enjoyment of verse with the practice of flagellation and the remembrance that betula is a birch.  Why not call it the Birchiad?  If you want it corrected here I can do so.  Hankey and I looked over the copy made at Paris and corrected the several errors.”[174]

Isabel Burton later wrote a reminiscence of Milnes’ country home Fryston in Yorkshire, which the Burtons visited regularly was well-attended by a network of society, as well as literary and bohemian, figures.[175]

The hospitalities of Lord Houghton have long since made Fryston famous.  None of those who have had that pleasant experience will forget the hearty reception which awaited them after their drive to the Hall—the figure of the host just about the middle height, his brown hair flowing carelessly from his broad forehead, his blue eyes beaming with gladness at the arrival of his friends, as he stood on the top of the stone steps, in front of the house, with both hands extended.  Then followed the cup of tea in the library, a long, handsome, comfortable room, soft carpeted, and replete with ottoman and sofa luxury, but walled with books, as indeed was the whole house, not in formal rows, but in separate cases, each with its own subject—Poetry, Magic, French Revolution, Oriental Thought, Theology and Anti-theology, Criminal Trials, Fiction, from Manon Lescaut to George Eliot. …

In August 1859, soon after Monckton Milnes had become proprietor, there met at Fryston, Mansfield Parkyns of Abyssinia; Robert Curzon of the Monasteries; Richard Burton, just returned from discovering the Lake Tanganyika, Central Africa; Petherick of Khartoum … and other travellers in distant fields and in many paths of practical and ideal life

She does not mention Milnes’ special collection of erotica, much of it supplied by Frederick Hankey, which Milnes liked to show to his guests.  In her Life she recalled “Richard cross-legged on a cushion, reciting and reading ‘Omar el Khayyam’ alternately in Persian and English, and chanting the call to prayer, ‘Allahhu Akbar.’”  Later the house burned down and Milnes lost his unique collection.

An extensive and revealing correspondence between Burton and Milnes survives in the Houghton Papers at Trinity College Cambridge, see Volumes 1 and 2.  The Burtons regularly called on his political influence.  Burton dedicated City of the Saints to him—Milnes repaid the favour by reviewing it glowingly, though anonymously, in the Edinburgh Review—and named a peak in the Cameroons Mount Milnes, though the name did not stick.

121.      Mitchell, Roland Lyon Nosworthy (1847-1931).

A colonial administrator, born in Oxford and educated at Christ Church College, Oxford.  Met Burton in Egypt, where Mitchell was tutor to the Khedive’s son, who he had met at Oxford, from 1873-1878.  He worked briefly in the Statistical Department of the Revenue Survey in Cairo the following year before becoming Commissioner of Limassol in Cyprus between 1879 and 1911.  Author of An Egyptian Calendar for the Koptic Year 1617 (1900) and An Egyptian Calendar for the year 1395 AH (1877).  Mitchell left an unpublished reminiscence of Burton in his memoirs, which survive in manuscript.  He is mentioned by Isabel in AEI,[176] and in the Arabian Nights.[177]

122.      Mitford, Bertram (Lord Redesdale) (1837-1916).

English diplomat and author, member of the well-known Mitford family which later produced the Mitford sisters, and a cousin of Algernon Swinburne.  According to the DNB “As a human being, Lord Redesdale was a sort of Prince Charming; with his fine features, sparkling eyes, erect and elastic figure, and, in the last years, his burnished silver curls, he was a universal favourite, a gallant figure of a gentleman, solidly English in reality, but polished and sharpened by travel and foreign society.  To see him stroll down Pall Mall, exquisitely dressed, his hat a little on one side, with a smile and a nod for every one, was to watch the survival of a type never frequent and now extinct.”  Mitford first met Burton when he was working for the Slave Trade Department in 1861, and was almost persuaded by Burton to join him in Africa at Fernando Po, pulling out at the last minute.  He visited them in Damascus (Isabel calls him “Barty Mitford”[178] was “pleasantly surprised” and “showed him the sights”[179]) and later, in 1890, the Burtons ran into him again in Algiers.[180]

123.      Mohl, Mary Elizabeth (1793-1883).

A bluestocking, popularly known as Clarkey from her maiden name, born in Westminster, from a family of Irish Jacobites.  Educated at a convent in Toulouse.  She ran a literary salon in Paris, where her mother had retired in 1831 on becoming a widow.  She was well-connected socially.  Past middle age, she married Julius Mohl, the orientalist who had helped to locate Nineveh.  She knew Lord Houghton (Monckton Milnes) and left a brief but sharp mention of Burton, who she met in the Autumn of 1864, in a letter to Houghton (see Volume 1).

124.      Money, Edward James (1822-1889).

An Indian Army officer, born in Calcutta, who served in the Crimea with the Bashi-Bazouks, commanded by William Beatson, and also known as “Beatson’s Horse.”  He later served in the Imperial Ottoman army.  Burton served in the same regiment in the Crimean War, as Beatson’s Chief of Staff.  The Bazouks were composed of irregular cavalry, “Bashi-Bazouk” meaning “leaderless” or “madcap”; they were mainly Albanian mercenaries who caused a great deal of trouble without seeing action before they were removed from Beatson’s command by Lord Panmure.  This led to a bitter dispute between Beatson and his superiors, which Burton was party to.  Money left an interesting reminiscence of Burton in his book on the Twelve Months with the Bashi-Bazouks (1857), see Volume 1 here.  Money wrote several other books, including The Tea Controversy (1884) and The Truth about America (1886)—where the tea was apparently no good.

125.      Moore, Noel Temple (1833-1903).

Consul at Damascus, succeeding Burton there in 1871.  His father Niven Moore (1799-1889) had been Consul-General in Syria.  Noel Temple Moore, who was married to Emma Churchill, eventually went on to become Consul General at Tripoli in 1890, retiring in 1894.  Previously he was Consul at Jerusalem, 1862-1871, and had been at the Beyrout Consulate in the 1850s.  Burton mentions him in Unexplored Syria.[181]

126.      Murchison, Sir Roderick FRS (1792-1871).

Geologist, Fellow of the Royal Society and President of the Royal Geographical Society 1843–1845 and subsequently for most of the period in which Burton’s connections to the Society were strongest (1851–1853, 1856–1859, 1862–1871).  See the reminiscence by Clements Markham for the uneasy relationship between Murchison and Burton.

127.      Murray, Rear-Admiral Henry Anthony (1810-1865).

An officer in the Royal Navy who was actively involved in the RGS in the 1850s and early 1860s, and was a lifelong bachelor.  Third and youngest son of George, fifth Earl of Dunmore, and Lady Susan Hamilton.  Joined the navy in 1823, obtaining his commission in 1831.  Murray published a travelogue describing his trip through the Americas in Lands of the Slave and the Free (1857).  He cultivated explorers and befriended Burton early in the 1850s, hosting him at well-attended Monday evening gatherings at his bachelor’s quarters in D4, the Albany—other attendees included Francis Galton, John Petherick, Mansfield Parkyns, Samuel Baker and Tom Hughes.  Jocular correspondence between the two survives which suggests an extensive association (see Volume 1).  Burton dedicated Wit and Wisdom of West Africa (1865) to Murray, who had just died, describing himself as one of Murray’s “reclaimed”—he addressed Murray in his letters as “Imperious Reclaimer”.

128.      Nichols, Harry Sidney (1865-1941?).

Publisher, born in Leeds.  Operated a business as a publisher in Sheffield, and then the bookshop “Nichols’ Book Emporium and Literary Lounge”, in Gladstone Buildings, quickly expanding from more traditional antiquarian books to erotica—but he had moved on by 1889, when the shop and its stock of 12,000 volumes were sold, and was established in London at Wardour Street by the early 1890s.  He became a partner of Leonard Smithers in the “Erotika Biblion Society” and thus involved with Burton.  The partnership with Smithers broke up in 1895.  Also published Georgiana Stisted’s The True Life of Capt. Sir Richard F. Burton (1896).  First exiled to Paris in 1900, when charged with obscenity for publishing Kalogynomia by Stockdale and Roberton—Sotheby’s promptly auctioned off his London stock—and subsequently fled from there to New York City in 1908, to avoid possible extradition to England.  In America he went on to publish titles such as Fifty Drawings By Aubrey Beardsley, Selected from the Collection Owned by Mr. H. S. Nichols (1920).  He died in Bellevue Psychiatric Hospital—some sources give his date of death as 1939, the year he was admitted there.  Nichols is often mentioned in the extensive correspondence between Smithers and Burton still extant (see Volume 3), which shows that Burton was initially leery of his motives and the safety of any partnership with him.

129.      Nicolson, Harold (1886-1968).

English diplomat and author, born in Tehran, the son of a diplomat, Arthur Nicolson (1849-1928) who was the Consul-General at Budapest between 1888 and 1893.  An Oxford graduate, he was married to Vita Sackville-West, an odd union described memorably by their son when he published their diaries.[182]  Nicholson met Burton, who knew his father, as a very young child and left a reminiscence which showed that he retained a strong impression of the explorer—see Volume 3.

130.      Neville, Amelia Ransome (1837-1927).

San Francisco socialite, originally from Connecticut.  She arrived in San Francisco in 1852.  She met Burton in San Francisco on his way back from Salt Lake City in 1860, and left a brief reminiscence of a dinner with him—see Volume 1.

131.      Notcutt, Oliver.

Burton’s agent in England in the late 1880s.  Notcutt was with the publishing firms Waterlow & Sons and Partridge & Cooper, who had printed the Nights for the Burtons.  He also wrote lyrics for musicals.  Correspondence between Notcutt and Isabel survives in the Huntington Library.

132.      Orton, Arthur (the ‘Tichborne Claimant’) (1834-1898).

Orton claimed to be the lost son Roger, heir of the Tichborne family, who were wealthy Anglo Catholic aristocracy.  Although he managed to convince Mrs. Tichborne’s that he was her long lost son, he was ultimately convicted of perjury after a sensational trial.  Orton was born in London but spent time in South America and Australia, under various names.  Burton testified at his trial in December of 1871 and claimed to have barely known him, but in fact knew him well during his time in South America.  Correspondence between the two was published at the time of the Tichborne trial, as were diary entries by Orton referring to Burton—see Volume 2.

133.      Ouida (Marie Louise de la Ramée) (1839-1908).

Popular novelist, born in England at Bury St Edmunds, the daughter of a French teacher.  After publishing her first (romantic) novel in 1863, she went on to conducted a salon at the Langham Hotel in London, where she continued to write successful novels.  She lived abroad in Florence from the early 1870s, producing occasional novels, and then took to topical periodical writing later in life.  Eventually destitute, she accepted a pension.  “Cynical, petulant, and prejudiced, she was quick at repartee.  … Slightly built, fair, with an oval face, she had large dark blue eyes, and golden brown hair.”[183]  It is not clear when she first met RFB, though it may have been through Swinburne, who was associated with her salons, or Monckton Milnes.  She corresponded with both the Burtons, and also wrote an important reminiscence of RFB for the Fortnightly Review—see Volume 3.  She was highly critical of Isabel’s destruction of Burton’s manuscripts and diaries, and broke with her after that.

134.      Outram, Sir James (1803-1863).

Highly distinguished Lieut.-General in the Indian Army, which he joined in 1819.  He was the son of Civil Engineer, and was educated in Aberdeen at Marischal College.  Outram, who had made a name in the Afghan war of 1838, had a highly public row in the 1840s with General Charles Napier, when Outram was still a Major, and Political Agent in Lower Sindh.  He opposed Napier’s annexation of Sindh, and the two fought a long battle in the press.  Burton, like many of Napier’s officers, sided with Napier in this quarrel.  He encountered Outram again at Aden in 1854 when he conducted his mission to Somali-land—“I applied officially to the Political Resident of Aden, the late Colonel, afterwards Sir James, Outram, of whose ‘generous kind nature’ and of whose ‘frank and characteristic ardour’ my personal experience do not permit me to speak with certainty.”[184]  Outram went on to serve with distinction in the Indian Mutiny of 1857, after which he was promoted to Lieutenant-General, and was buried in Westminster Abbey on his death in 1863.  Burton later wrote a set of unflattering biographical notes on Outram, which are now in the British Library.

135.      Paget, Lady Walburga (1839-1929).

German diarist and writer, born in Berlin, with connections to Queen Victoria—she had been her lady in waiting.  She was married to the British Ambassador to Rome, Sir Augustus Berkeley Paget (1823-1896).  She died of burns after falling asleep next to a fire at home.  The Pagets were well-known to the Burtons, who would run into them in Vienna on holiday.  Lady Paget also corresponded with Isabel, see Volume 3.  She wrote several books of memoirs and other productions, including Embassies of Other Days (1923) and In My Tower (1924).

136.      Palgrave, William Gifford (1826-1888).

A traveller and Orientalist, born in Westminster and educated at Charterhouse and Trinity College, Oxford.  He was a son of Sir Francis Palgrave.  He joined the East India Company in 1847, and converted to Catholicism in India, where he was ordained as Jesuit priest.  Later he renounced the religion—“We visited Mr. Palgrave’s old quarters, a monastery of fifty or sixty Jesuits, where Mr. Palgrave was a Jesuit for seventeen years. Here we all got fever.”[185]  In 1862 he travelled through Central Arabia, recorded in his book Personal Narrative of a Year's Journey through Central and Eastern Arabia (1863).  After this he took up various consular postings, for example Trebizond In Turkey, and authored a number of books, including Essays on Eastern Questions (London: Macmillan, 1872) and A Vision of Life: Semblance and Reality (London: Macmillan, 1891).  Burton mentions Palgrave several times, in his correspondence and in his books, and his personal library contains several works by him, with written annotations.[186]

137.      Parkinson, Joseph Charles (1833-1908).

Journalist, civil servant and social reformer.  Parkinson left a reminiscence of Ali the Pilot, who had been on the ship with Burton in the Red Sea on his journey to Mecca in 1853—see Volume 1.

138.      Paull, George (1837-1865).

An American Presbyterian Missionary in West Africa.  Originally from Pennsylvania, he was educated at Jefferson College and the Western Theological Seminary, graduating in 1862.  He died at his mission in 1865.[187]  Paull left a detailed reminiscence of Burton on the slopes of Fernando Po 1864, climbing up six miles to the salubrious cottage at Buena Vista that Burton learned to prefer to the consulate on the coast—see Volume 1.

139.      Payne, John (1842-1916).

English poet, Arabist and prolific author, born in Bloomsbury.  He was the son of John Edward Hawkins-Payne, a linguist and inventor, and Betsy Rogers, the daughter of a wealthy merchant from Bristol.  Although he trained and alter practiced as a solicitor, he took up poetry on the side, befriending the Rossettis and Swinburne.  In the late 1870s he helped to found the Villon Society, along with Justin Huntly McCarthy (see above) for bringing out translations of works not in the mainstream of publishing. He is chiefly remembered now for his translation of the Arabian Nights, which he started in 1881 and completed in 1884.  Burton corresponded with Payne extensively when he discovered that Payne was working on Nights project, which he had been toying with himself.  They continued to collaborate through the production of Burton’s unexpurgated ‘literal’ version, which Payne later claimed not to approve of, and met many times in person.  Payne left several unflattering impressions of Burton which are reproduced by Payne’s biographer, Thomas Wright—see Volume 3.[188]  Payne went on to produce, among many other works, The Decameron by Giovanni Boccaccio (1886), The Quatrains of Omar Kheyyam of Nisahpour (1898) and Poems of Master François Villon of Paris (1900).

140.      Quaritch, Bernard (1819-1899).

Publisher, successful antiquarian dealer and bookseller, of Prussian Wendish origin, who naturalized in England.  “Fond of airing his views on politics and sociology in catalogue notes” with “a somewhat squat and awkward figure, occasionally rough manners, irrepressible egotism, pithy sayings, half humorous, half sardonic, delivered in a grating voice, combined to form an interesting if not a very attractive personality”.[189]  He was the author of several works on bibliophilia.  His son Bernard continued the family business after his father’s death, and it continues on today.  Quaritch had extensive dealings with Burton from an early stage, no later than his preparations for his journey to Mecca in 1853, and left a reminiscence—see Volume 1.  He remembered then supplying Burton with a disguised copy of Freytag's Dictionary of Arabic, “bound like a pair of Oriental MSS”.  He also published Burton’s Kasidah (1880, anonymously) and his 6-volume Camoens set (1880-1884).  Burton mentions him several times in his works, e.g. Ultima Thule and the Nights.[190]

141.      Rashid Pasha, Mehmet (?-1876).

Governor of Syria from 1866 to 1872, during Burton’s Consulship at Damascus, which Rashid opposed from the start—see the letters in Volume 2.  Ultimately he insisted on Burton’s recall in 1871.  After a change of government in Istanbul in 1872, Rashid was dismissed from his governorship, which Burton considered a personal vindication, but was later made Minister of Public Works and Foreign Affairs at Istanbul.  Not long after, he was killed by a shot in the dark during the affray in the Council Chamber which followed the assassination of the Minister of War, Hussein Avni Pasha, on the 15th of June 1876.  Opinions vary about the quality of his administration of Syria.

142.      Rathborne, Captain Anthony Blake (1811?-1885).

Magistrate and Revenue Collector in Hyderabad in the 1840s, when Burton was stationed in Scinde.  Son of Captain Wilson Rathborne (1748-1831) of the Royal Navy, of Anglo-Irish descent, who distinguished himself in Napoleonic naval engagements, including the aftermath of Trafalgar.[191]  Studied at Ushant.  Joined the East Indian army, at age 16, serving in the 24th Native Infantry.  He described his family background as follows:[192]

I am the son, then, of a man belonging to the middle classes—my grandfather having been a beneficed clergyman of the Church of Ireland. His fathers, again, had filled positions of honour and credit there, from the time of the first of them crossing over from Lancashire in the reign of James the Second; by a party of whose officers he was set upon and assassinated, during that monarch’s invasion of Ireland in the endeavour to recover his crown, From early associations, my mind was pretty much divided between the claims of letters, politics, and arms. For my father was an officer of the Royal Navy, of conspicuous bravery, and who had served his sovereign with as much distinction as the rank of captain, in which he died, allowed. He had been in many general actions, as well as engagements of lesser consequence; he had lost his eye, and had had his shoulder shot away, while contributing as first lieutenant of a line-of-battleship to one of our greatest naval victories. He had had presented to him a sword of some value from the Patriotic Fund, at Lloyd’s, for his share in the action under Sir Richard Strachan, which put the finishing blow to the destruction, by Nelson at Trafalgar, of the fleets of France; and on the remodelling of the Order of the Bath, in 1815, he was made one of the first companions of it, when the honour was much more sparingly bestowed, and thought much more of a distinction than it is at present.  On the other hand, politics and political literature drew me towards them by the example ever present to my mind, of three among my nearest relatives and connections who had built themselves up a name in these departments of public service entirely by their own unaided talents.  One of these, Mr. Blake, my mother's cousin, was Chief Remembrancer of Ireland, appointed to the office by the Marquis Wellesley; and was, I have no doubt, known to many of the older members of your Honourable House.  The second, my first cousin, by my father’s side, the late Mr. Croker, must also have been well known to all who were members of the House before the passing of the Reform Bill, as well as to many who have entered it since.  Last, not least, was the great Edmund Burke, nearly allied to my mother, who had spent many of her earlier days under his roof; and my veneration for whose character and writings first imbued me with those sentiments of hostility to the Company’s rule, which, long before l had had any difference with its officials or directors, filled my breast.

Burton referred to Rathborne as his ‘old friend’[193]  and recalled, somewhat inaccurately, that ‘The Karrachee Advertiser presently appeared in the modest shape of a lithographed sheet on Government foolscap, and, through Sir William Napier, its most spicy articles had the honour of a reprint in London. Of these, the best were "the letters of Omega," by my late friend Rathborne, then Collector at Hyderabad, and they described the vices of the Sind Amirs in language the reverse of ambiguous. I did not keep copies, nor, unfortunately, did the clever and genial author.’[194]  

Rathborne went on to author many books, including a collaboration with General Charles Napier’s brother William, the lengthily-titled  Comments by Lieut.-General Sir William Napier, K.C.B., upon a memorandum of the Duke of Wellington, and other documents, censuring Lieut.-General Charles James Napier, G.C.B. with a defence of Sir C. Napier's government of Scinde, by Captain Rathborne, Collector of Scinde (London: C. Westerton, 1854), and his own running battle with Bartle Frere Mr. Disraeli, Colonel Rathborne and the Council of India (London: C. Westerton, 1860) and Supplement to Mr. Disraeli, Colonel Rathborne, and the Council of India.  (London: C. Westerton, 1861), Mr. Disraeli and the “Unknown Envoy.” A letter to Viscount Palmerston (London, 1861), and the more practical A Few Words of advice on the subject of making Wills.  (London: M. Pillay & Co., 1879) and another political broadside that Burton would have approved of, Turkey and the victims of its bad faith and its mis-government, financial, religious and political.  (London: J. G. Taylor, 1875).  He also wrote widely for the reviews and journals, and was active in the East India Association.  He retired from the Indian Army in 1856 and practiced at the bar in London after studying law at the Middle Temple, where his address was 5 Brick Court.  Some correspondence between Burton and Rathborne survives, see Volume 2.

143.      Rawson, Albert Leighton (1829-1902).

Born in Chester Vermont but raised in Weedsport outside Syracuse New York, Rawson is chiefly remembered today as a painter, theosophist and “freethinker”.  He published many books on biblical and religious subjects and listed fanciful academic degrees, including an honorary LLD from Oxford.  He styled himself as “Professor Rawson”, and claimed to have visited Mecca disguised as a medical student in 1851-2.  None of these claims has ever been supported, but there is evidence that he was a bigamist, and that he was once convicted of larceny.  His entries in contemporary biographical listings contain many stupendous feats, most likely based on information he supplied himself.  Rawson’s “reminiscence” of Burton appears in Volume 3 and appears to be an outright invention.

144.      Reade, William Winwood (1838-1875).

Traveller, journalist and novelist.  Born in Oxfordshire and educated at Magdalen Hall, Oxford (1856), though he did not take a degree.  He was a nephew of the novelist Charles Reade, and made some efforts to write novels himself.  After Du Chaillu’s controversial reports of the Gorilla, he travelled to The Gaboon in 1861 to search for it, then on to Angola and the Cameroons, but he did not find it.  This trip is described in his book Savage Africa (London: Smith, Elder & Co., 1864).  He returned to West Africa in 1869 on behalf of the RGS, and later covered the Ashanti War of 1873 as a newspaper correspondent.  He went on to write several other novels, travelogues and attacks on religion.  Isabel tried to convert him as he was dying: “During all the month of April I was very sad about Winwood Reade, who was living, or rather dying, alone in a wretched little room at the top of a house.  I used to go and see him every day and try and cheer him, and take him anything I fancied he could touch.  I asked him if money could be of any use to him, but he told me he had quite enough to last him for the time he had to live.  What distressed me the most of all, was the state he was dying in, which to me was dreadful, because he said he had no belief, and it seemed true.  Of course it was useless—it was no business of mine; but I could not help doing my best during the last fortnight of his life to induce him to believe in God, and to be sorry before he died.”[195] 

Burton had been on friendly terms with Reade since 1864, when they met in England, and frequently refers to him in his books and in his correspondence.[196]  Reade missed meeting him at Fernando Po in 1862 “I was disappointed of an interview with Richard Burton, who was up the Cameroons, a volcanic mountain as high as the Peak of Teneriffe.  However, during the few days which I spent at Fernando Po, I was located at his house, and had at my disposal a library of which the profound and varied nature was an index to that great mind.”[197]  In Two Trips to Gorilla Land, Burton lauds Reade: “I deplore his loss.  The highest type of Englishman, brave and fearless as he was gentle and loving, his short life of thirty-seven years shows how much may be done by the honest, thorough worker.  He had emphatically the courage of his opinions, and he towered a cubit above the crowd by telling not only the truth, as most of us do, but the whole truth, which so few can afford to do.  His personal courage in battle during the Ashanti campaign, where the author of ‘Savage Africa’ became correspondent of the ‘Times,’ is a matter of history.  His noble candour in publishing the ‘Martyrdom of Man’ is an example and a model to us who survive him.  And he died calmly and courageously as he lived, died in harness, died as he had resolved to die, like the good and gallant gentleman of ancient lineage that he was.”  There are annotated copies of Savage Africa and The Martyrdom of Man in Burton’s personal library.[198]

145.      Rebmann, Johannes (1820-1876).

Missionary for the Church Missionary Society, active in East Africa from 1846 to 1875.  Born in Württemberg in Germany, the son of a farmer, and trained in Basel and at the Church Missionary Society College in London.  A colleague of Johann Krapf, the pair discovered Mount Kilimanjaro and Kenya and sent back reports of ‘eternal snows’ to the Church Missionary Intelligencer in London, which regularly published letters and extracts from Rebmann’s journal from May of 1849 onward. 

The mountains of Jagga gradually rose more distinctly to our sight. At about ten o'clock (I had no watch with me) I observed something remarkably white on the top of a high mountain, and first supposed that it was a very white cloud, in which supposition my guide also confirmed me; but having gone a few paces more I could no more rest satisfied with that explanation; and while I was asking my guide a second time whether that white thing was indeed a cloud, and scarcely listening to his answer that yonder was a cloud, but what that white was he did not know, but supposed it was coldness, the most delightful recognition took place in my mind of an old well-known European guest called snow. All the strange stories we had so often heard about the gold and silver mountain Kilimandjaro in Jagga, supposed to be inaccessible on account of evil spirits, which had killed a great many of those who had attempted to ascend it, were now at once rendered intelligible to me, as of course the extreme cold, to which the poor Natives are perfect strangers, would soon chill and kill the half-naked visitors.  I endeavoured to explain to my people the nature of that “white thing," for which no name exists even in the language of Jagga itself; but they at first appeared as if they were not to trust my words at once.  Soon after we sat down to rest a little, when I read the 111th Psalm, at which I had just arrived in my daily reading.  It made a singular impression on my mind in the view of the beautiful snow mountain so near to the Equator, and gave, especially the sixth verse, the best expression to the feelings and anticipations I was moved with.[199]

Later, their interpretation of reports they heard about the interior, brought back to Europe in 1855 by another colleague Jacob Erhardt, led to the publication in the Calwer Missionsblatt of the prototype of the famous “slug map”, which conflated the lakes of the interior into one enormous continuous body of water—see Volume 1.  Rebmann met and corresponded with Burton as a result of the East African Expedition of 1856-9.  Burton considered adding him to his expedition, but soon changed his mind, explaining to Sir George Back that “I am resolved not to take Mr. Rebmann, he would never stand the climate suffers from spleen and appears to have a kind of longing for martyrdom which you know would not suit the R. G. Soc.”.[200]  Some correspondence between the two survives—Rebmann writes that “I am a little afraid, as you are rather a facetious writer, that you might misrepresent my views about the cause of colour, as indeed you have already done, though only in a joking way, when I was in conversation with you.”[201]  Rebmann returned to Europe in 1875, dying of pneumonia the following year.

146.      Rhys, Ernest Percival (1859-1946).

Poet, folklorist, critic and long-time editor of J. M. Dent’s “Everyman’s Library”.  Born in London, the son of a publisher’s assistant who became a wine merchant, John Rhys, of Welsh descent, and Emma Percival.  He qualified as a mining engineer but preferred writing, an inclination he credited to his mother’s ancestry.  Rhys was exceptionally well-connected in literary circles, and knew Burton at first-hand, through Dr. George Bird, his sister Alice “Lallah” Bird, and Swinburne.  Rhys had met Dr. Bird when staying in (what was believed to be) Leigh Hunt’s cottage—Bird, who had known Hunt, stopped to stare at it and was invited in.[202]

Rhys left an interesting Boswellian reminiscence of an evening spent with Swinburne, the Birds and Burton: “I sat down and wrote what I could remember of the conversation.  So what is here recorded is red hot.  I wish I had taken notes of other equally wonderful evenings with Swinburne and Burton.”—see Volume 2.  Among his many works was a set of memoirs of his literary connections, Everyman Remembers (1931).

147.      Ricci, Dr. Hermann Robert (R. H. R.).

Very little seems to be definitely known about the traveller and author “R.H.R.,” whose Rambles in Istria (1875), which contains a reminiscence of Burton, is highly collectable today—see Volume 2.  His real name is hard to determine, some suggest “Robert Hole Ricci” or “Richard Hole Ricci” instead.[203]  The best known source lists “Dr. de Ricci” as the author.[204] This is presumably Dr. Hermann Robert de Ricci, a physician from Dublin, listed by the Gentleman’s Magazine as the only son of Adj.-Gen. and Lady Jane De Ricci.[205]  De Ricci published widely in the Medical and Scientific press.  There is a copy of Rambles in Istria in Burton’s personal library.[206]

148.      Richards, Alfred Bate (1820-1876).

English journalist, dramatist and novelist, the son of a Yorkshire MP.  Richards was a contemporary of Burton at Oxford.

This is a curious reflection at school for any boy or any master, “what will become of the boy? Who will turn out well, who ill? who will distinguish himself, who remain in obscurity? who live, who die?”  I am sure, although Burton was brilliant, rather wild, and very popular, none of us foresaw his future greatness, nor knew what a treasure we had amongst us.[207]

In his reminiscences written for Francis Hitchman, Burton recalled first meeting Richards: “At the fencing rooms Richard made an acquaintance which afterwards ripened into friendship with poor Alfred Bate Richards.  He was upwards of six feet high, broad in proportion and very muscular. Richard found it unadvisable to box with him, but could easily master him with foil and broadsword.”[208]

Richards graduated from Exeter College in 1841, and remained a life-long friend.  Shortly after leaving Oxford, Richards published the polemic Oxford Unmasked (1841).  He briefly practiced law at Lincoln’s Inn, but was attracted to drama and journalism instead, editing the Morning Advertiser.  In 1859 he helped to found a rifle corps of working men, who volunteered to protect England from the threat of a French Invasion.  Richards later became a Colonel in the resulting “3rd City of London Rifle Corps”.  His biographical writings about Burton were published after his death as A Sketch of the Career of Richard F. Burton (1880), an expanded and revised version of which was published in 1886.  His name is often misspelled as “Bates Richards”.

Burton later wrote, regarding the Morning Advertiser, that the “journal was ever friendly to me during the long reign of Mr. James Grant, and became especially so when the editorial chair was so worthily filled by my old familiar of Oxford days, the late Alfred Bate Richards, a man who made the ‘Organ of the Licensed Victuallers’ a power in the state and was warmly thanked for his good services by that model conservative, Lord Beaconsfield.”[209]  Burton also dedicated The Book of the Sword to Richards, “my old and dear college friend”.

149.      Rigby, Christopher Palmer (1820-1885).

An officer and accomplished linguist in the Indian Army.  Born at Yately Lodge in Hampshire, son of Tipping Thomas Rigby, a barrister in the Inner Temple and recorder of Wallingford.  After a bleak childhood spent mainly in spartan boarding schools, with a mother who appeared to actively dislike him, Rigby trained at the Addiscombe Military College of the East India Company, entering at the early age of 14.  He arrived in Bombay in 1836, in the 16th Native Infantry, at age 16, and passed in Hindoostanee, Maharatta, Canarese, Guzerati, Persian and Arabic.  He was then posted to Aden for 4 years, where he compiled grammars of the Somali and Sathpoora languages.  His outstanding language skills led to his appointment as President of the Military and Civil Examination Committee at the Bombay Presidency in 1854, and he served as interpreter on the Persian Expedition of 1856-7.

Rigby was appointed Company Agent and then British Consul at Zanzibar, serving from 27th July 1858 to 5th September 1861, succeeding Atkins Hamerton.  He opposed an attempted coup by two brothers of the Sultan of Zanzibar, and is credited with promoting the suppression of the slave trade there.  This led to a serious dispute with Captain Richard Borough Crawford of the Sidon, who was accused by Rigby of knowingly impounding a Turkish ship and destroying it, on the pretext that it was a slaver, of lying to Rigby about the flag it was flying, of disobeying orders from Rigby to not release the crew, of visiting and irregularly accepting gifts from the Sultan without Rigby’s permission, and of subsequently sending Rigby an insulting message.  After Rigby spread these reports in official circles, Crawford—who resented what he saw as presumption, since he outranked Rigby—insisted on a court-martial to clear his name.  When the court-martial was held at Portsmouth in February of 1862, Rigby was compelled to travel back to England to attend in person, and Crawford was largely vindicated, and in the words of a modern Naval historian, “accused Rigby of having spared no pains ‘to rake up into one huge heap’ all the gossip which could have tarnished his image”.[210]

After his retirement to England in 1866, with rank of Major-General, Rigby was active in the RGS, the Royal Asiatic Society and the Anti-Slavery Society.  He married a Miss Prater in 1867 and had two sons who both served in the Boer War—Gerard Christopher Rigby, born in 1868, who emigrated to Canada, and Percy George Rigby, who was killed in the First World War—and a daughter, Lillian, who would later write his biography.  He died of pneumonia.

Rigby was closely allied with John Hanning Speke in his controversy with Burton, to whom Rigby took a violent dislike.  The original source of the quarrel is hard to disentangle now.  Isabel Burton promoted the idea that Rigby was jealous of Burton having, she claimed, beaten him in some of the language examinations they both took in India, and this has been repeated by many authors ever since.  Likewise, Burton accused Rigby of an unspecified “personal pique”.  However, the examinations were qualifying and not competitive, with no ranking of candidates, and neither Isabel nor RFB could not have had any personal knowledge of Rigby’s motivations. 

In earlier years, Burton referred with mixed praise to Rigby’s paper “Outline of the Somauli Language, with Vocabulary”,[211] which he said “supplied a great lacuna in the dialects of Eastern Africa” but “asserts that the dialect of which he is writing ‘has not the slightest similarity to Arabic in construction.’  A comparison of the singular persons of the pronouns will, I believe, lead to a different conclusion.”[212]  But Burton only met up with Rigby again—they had apparently known each other in India—on his return to Zanzibar, eight months after Rigby had succeeded Hamerton.  Before they got there, however, Burton had been sending desperate notes to the British Consul for supplies, and the trouble between them may have started with these.  In a letter to Norton Shaw, written on June 24, 1858, Burton warned that “unless Col. Ham.’s promises be fulfilled by his successor, we shall be placed in a most disagreeable position at Zanzibar” and that he had received some help from the Sultan of Zanzibar and his officials, but only after they were “urged on by the Consul de France, M. Lad. Cochet, who after Lt.-Col. Ham.’s unfortunate decease, has proved himself an active & energetic friend”.[213]  Burton had addressed his requests for help to both the British Consul and to Cochet “in case of accidents”.[214]  He also mentioned having received “friendly letters” from Cochet, who “supplied me with the local news”.[215]

Ladislas Cochet was apparently a Russian Pole, but had served the French on Zanzibar since 1855.  He was suspected at the time of Burton’s return—by the Sultan’s administration, and by Rigby—of conspiring with rebels to stage a revolt in Zanzibar, hoping to move it into the French sphere of influence.[216]  Rigby was by then conducting a protracted personal campaign against the French, whom he alleged were carrying on a disguised form of slavery through their indentured labour system—he tried to seize their ships when he could find a pretext.  The situation got hot enough on the island for four warships to be summoned by the British and two by the French.[217] 

When Burton and Speke returned to Zanzibar in March 1859, they stayed for a month with Rigby, at the Consul’s house overlooking the harbour, until their return to Aden.  Burton remained on friendly terms with Cochet, visiting him often.  Rigby’s daughter later suggested that this angered her father: “Contrast Rigby’s scruples as a host with Burton’s absence of proper feeling as a guest when he forgathered on friendly terms with a man not on visiting terms with the said host, viz. M. Cochet.”[218]  Later, in his Lake Regions, Burton kept stirring the pot, referring to Cochet as an “uninterested spectator” in the rebellion who nevertheless “thought favourably” of their cause, a rival claim by the elder brother of the Sultan.[219]  Given that Rigby was also an earnest and committed Christian, he was unlikely to have warmed to Burton’s personality and manners.

Speke had approached Rigby at the Consulate with complaints about Burton failing to pay some of the porters who had been engaged to the expedition.  At first Rigby had declined to get involved, but after Speke raised the issue again in correspondence, en route to Aden, he became more interested.  Speke obsessively returned to this issue, at ever greater length, whenever he wrote to Rigby, and both men went on to use it as a weapon against Burton. 

Here Rigby was much more damaging to Burton than Speke, since he was able to make written complaints to the East India Company and the RGS in his official capacity as the Consul on the spot.  The letters in Volume 1 show that Speke and Rigby fed on their shared hostility to Burton, while remaining in ostensibly friendly contact with him.  It was over 8 months before he was made aware of this covert hostility by a letter from Rigby to the RGS, passed on to him by Norton Shaw, after which Burton wrote an open letter to Rigby, concluding “I shall at all times, in all companies, even in print if it suits me, use the same freedom in discussing your character and conduct that you have presumed to exercise in discussing mine”.[220] 

It is obvious from this correspondence that the rift with Rigby long pre-dated comments that Burton eventually made in print about both men, after relations had already broken down between them.  Consider this remark by Speke to Rigby, written on the 17th Oct. 1859: “I am sincerely obliged to you for the very long and highly amusing letter that you have sent to me.  It has gone the rounds of the family circle and has been much chuckled over, especially that part descriptive of great Burton and his big boots.  The boots were worn day and night until he arrived at Aden when Sharam alone induced his dropping them & then he took to quiet slippers—an article much better adapted to the miserable condition of his weak legs and rotten gut.”  This also suggests that their hostility was not really based on righteous indignation, self-persuaded or not, over payments to porters,.

After the dispute with the Speke/Rigby/Grant alliance became public, both sides took every chance to warm it over.  At meetings of the RGS he was able to confront Rigby in occasional heated debates.  According to Isabel, he also used to leave mocking calling cards in the rooms of the RGS, inscribed:

Two loves the Row of Savile haunt,
    Who both by nature big be;
The fool is Colonel (Barren) Grant,
    The rogue is General Rigby.[221]

Rigby reciprocated, raging in letters to Grant “I see that fellow Burton is going to Santos in Brazil. I was sorry to see Sir Roderick[222] call such a man his friend for he must know his true character”[223] and “I noticed the yelping of that cur Burton in the papers.  It makes me quite savage to see how the Geographical listen to a man who is such a habitual liar; I don't believe he could speak a word of truth if he tried.”[224]

An anonymous reviewer of Isabel’s Life in the Edinburgh Review—most likely Laurence Oliphant, who knew both men—recalled the dispute: “Rigby was a man well known and esteemed, a man of ability and prudence; but to the end of his life the mere name of Burton was enough to rouse him to fury—an effect similar to that which his name had on Burton”.[225]

150.      Roscher, Dr. Albrecht (1836-1860).

German explorer, sent by the King of Bavaria to explore East Africa.  Author of Ptolemaeus und die Handelsstrassen in Central-Afrika (Gotha, J. Perthes, 1857).  He was already in Zanzibar in September 1858, and in early 1859 met Burton’s party, returning from the interior, on an excursion to the mainland.  Burton left a barbed portrait of him:

One day we were surprised by the abrupt entrance of a youth, eminently North German in aspect, with sandy hair, smooth face, and protruding eyes, flat occiput and projecting ears, he announced himself as Dr. Albrecht Roscher, of Hamburg, and he made himself doubly welcome by bringing from Zanzibar the wished-for supplies, letters, and newspapers ….  The traveller, who appeared at most 22, applied himself forthwith to the magnetic survey, for which he had been engaged by the Prussian Government.  A visit to Mozambique, and a run up coast, had taught him everything learnable about East Africa.  He despised the dangers of climate, against which he was cautioned: having hitherto escaped fever, he held himself malaria-proof, and he especially derided our advice about not wandering over the country unarmed.  He lauded to the skies his fellow-townsman Dr. Barth.  He severely criticised Dr. Livingstone; he patronized, in a comical way, Herr Petermann; he highly extolled his own book; and he wrote to Zanzibar—so we afterwards heard—a far from flattering estimate of our qualifications as travellers.  He stayed with us two days, and then departed northwards … .[226]

Roscher left Zanzibar in June 1859 for Lake Nyassa, joining a caravan at Kilwa.  He was murdered on the 19th of March 1860, near Lake Nyassa (Lake Malawi) which he had reached by the 19th November 1859.  Consul C. P. Rigby reported from Zanzibar that “on the third day they arrived at the village of ‘Kisoongoonee,’ about midday, and Dr. Roscher was invited by the head man of the village to his house. About 4 o'clock P.m. Dr. Roscher was sleeping in this house, and one servant was lying at the door, the other servant had gone to a stream some distance from the village to bring water. On his return he heard the other servant, who was his own brother, calling to him to come quick as the villagers were about to attack them. On reaching the village he saw a number of men armed with bows and arrows in front of the house, and at the same moment his brother was shot. Dr. Roscher just then appeared at the door of the house and was instantly shot with two arrows, one striking him in the breast, the other in the throat. He fell and expired almost immediately.”[227]

151.      Rossetti, Dante Gabriel (1828-1882).

Pre-Raphaelite poet and painter.  Born in London to an Italian immigrant from Naples, who later became a professor of Italian in King’s College—and an eccentric Dante specialist.  Educated at Kings College, where he was a child prodigy.  Trained at Cary’s Drawing Academy for four years, and then at the Royal Academy.  He knew Burton through the Bohemian set in London, perhaps originally through Swinburne, and they corresponded about Italian poetry—see Volume 2.  In his edition of the “Lyricks” of Camoens, Burton wrote

I have borne in mind Rosetti’s[228] dictum—“the life-blood of rhythmical translation is, that a good poem should not be turned into a bad one.”[229]

He descended in middle life into a spiral of drug and alcohol addiction, which increased his production of poetry.  Rossetti translated The Early Italian Poets (1861; 1874, as ‘Dante and His Circle’), and produced Poems (1870) and other works, including many picture/poem combinations.  His sister Christina and brother William were also notable in their own right: they were all known to Burton from his greater London circle. 

152.      Russell, Katherine Louisa (1844-1874).

Mother of the philosopher and public figure Bertrand Russell, known informally as Kate.  She was a daughter of Edward Stanley (1802-1869), and married Lord John Russell, Viscount Amberley (1842-1876) the son of the former Liberal Prime Minister Lord Russell (1792-1878), who was later Earl Russell—and the Foreign Secretary when Burton was Consul at Fernando Po.  The Russells met the Burtons at Alderley, the country estate of Kate’s brother Henry Edward John Stanley, 3rd Baron Stanley of Alderley (1827–1903).  Her brother had converted to Islam in 1862.  Both Russells left important reminiscences of the Burtons in their diaries—see Volume 2.  She died at a young age of diphtheria, and is chiefly remembered today as an early advocate of female suffrage and related ideas.

153.      Russell, Lord John, Viscount Amberley (1842-1876).

Father of the philosopher and public figure Bertrand Russell.  Married Kate Stanley (see above).  Educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, but did not receive a degree.  He was briefly a Member of Parliament, as a Liberal (1866-8).  He was an epileptic, and died a few years after his wife, of bronchitis.

154.      Russell, Odo William Leopold (1829-1884).

Nephew of Lord Russell (1792-1878), educated at home.  He became a professional diplomat, and was Assistant Under-secretary in the Foreign Office in 1870-1871.  Later he became Ambassador to Germany in 1871, as Lord Ampthill.  Russell dealt with Burton extensively during his tenure as Consul at Damascus, but was known to him much earlier, when Russell was Secretary to Lord Stratford de Redcliffe in Constantinople, during the Crimean War.  Isabel later wrote that “It was, by-the-by, no bad idea to appoint this high-bred and average talented English gentleman to the Court of Prince Bismarck, who disliked and despised nothing more thoroughly than the pert little political, the ‘Foreign Office pet’ of modern days.”[230]  Russell’s nickname “O Don’t” seems to have come from Punch, when he was stationed at the Vatican in the 1860s.[231]

    As all ladies confess
    That their “no” oft means yes,
Mr. Russell but followed men's wont,
    When the Pope's reply, too,
    He construed, “O, do,”
Though the Cardinal swears 'twas, “O, don't.”

155.      Saker, Rev. Alfred (1814-1880).

A Missionary from Kent, a member of the Baptist Missionary Society.  He was the son of a millwright and engineer, under whom he apprenticed as a shipyard engineer.  He was active on Fernando Po from 1844 to 1858, and after that, when the Baptists were expelled by the Spanish from Fernando Po, in the Cameroons at Victoria, which he founded with a congregation of resettled slaves from Jamaica.  Burton met Saker in the Cameroons, in October 1861, soon after arriving as Consul for Fernando Po: “Mr. Saker Baptist missionary called upon me today, he appears a long hearted man, not unlike a petit Townsend.”[232]  Saker later accompanied Burton and Gustav Mann on their expedition to climb the Cameroons Mountains in December 1861 to January 1862.  The expedition started from Saker’s base in Victoria, from where the mountains could clearly be seen, as they could from Fernando Po.  Saker’s diary entries from the expedition appear in Volume 1.  Burton and Saker appear to have rubbed along well.  He returned to England in 1878.

156.      Sartoris, Adelaide Kemble (1815-1879).

An Opera singer and occasional authoress, born at Covent Garden, a sister of the actress Fanny Kemble, from the famous Kemble family of actors and singers.  She was married to Edward John Sartoris, MP, but they lived mostly abroad, in Italy.  Mrs. Sartoris was with Burton, Swinburne and Frederick Leighton in Vichy in September 1869 and left a reminiscence, known to us at second-hand.  Leighton was rumoured to be her lover.  She was the author of A Week in a French Country House (1867)

157.      Sayce, Archibald Henry (1845-1933).

An English Orientalist and philologist, the son of a curate.  He graduated from Queen’s College, Oxford, in 1869, and later became professor of Comparative Philology there.  A lifelong bachelor, he published extensively on archeology and philology, and travelled often to Greece and the Levant.  It is not clear when he first met Burton, but Sayce later remembered that they planned a journey in North Africa together in the early 1880s, which did not come off.  Burton often refers to Sayce in his later books, from Etruscan Bologna onwards.  His personal library contains several works by Sayce, e.g. An Assyrian grammar, for comparative purposes (London, Trubner, 1872) and The Hittites: the story of a forgotten empire (London, The Religious Tract Society, 1888).  Some correspondence also survives.

158.      Schroeder, Seaton (1849-1922).

An American naval officer, rising to Admiral.  He was the son of the US Ambassador to Sweden and was educated at the Naval Academy.  He served in the far east and in the Spanish-American war.  He met Burton in Trieste in the early 1870s—his brief reminiscence of the encounter appears in Volume 2.

159.      Schweinfurth, Georg August (1836-1925).

A German-speaking African explorer from Riga in Latvia.  Received the Gold Medal of the RGS, in 1874, for his exploration of the Nile region between 1868 and 1871.  Author of Im Herzen von Afrika (The Heart of Africa) (Leipzig, 1873).  Burton refers to him in his books and in his correspondence, but it is not known if they met in person.  A presentation copy of Schweinfurth’s book Die altesten Kloster der Christenheit (St. Antonius und St. Paulus) (Cairo, October 1877) survives in Burton’s personal library, with his annotations.[233]

160.      Scully, William (?-1885).

Irish-born owner and editor of the weekly Anglo-Brazilian Times (1865-1884).  Often referred to as “Misther Scully” in Burton’s correspondence.  Emigrated to Brazil in the 1850s.  Author of Brazil: Its Provinces and Chief Cities; the Manners and Customs of the People; Agricultural, Commercial and other Statistics, etc. (Rio de Janeiro: 1865; London: Murray, 1866), and A New Map of Brazil (London: George Philip & Son, 1866).  “Mr. William Scully kindly printed in his paper, the Anglo-Brazilian Times (February, 1867), a biographical sketch [of Camoens] borrowed from Viscount Juromenha, and specimens of Canto i.”[234]

161.      Seymour, Walter Richard (1838-1922).

Travelling gentleman, son of an English Canon, Rev. Richard Seymour.  Travelled in South America.  His brother Richard wrote Pioneering in the Pampas or, The first four years of a settler's experience (Longmans: London, 1869).  He met both Wilfrid Blunt and Burton in South America, in the company of the Tichborne Claimant (Arthur Orton), and left an intriguing mention of this meeting, which is confirmed by Arthur Orton’s diary entry, both of which appear in Volume 2.  He was later, like Burton, subpoenaed to testify at Orton’s trial in London.

162.      Seymour, Sir Edward Hobart (1840-1929).

Admiral of the fleet, from a family with distinguished naval connections. Considered a good linguist, he served in the Crimean War and the far east, where he saw action in the Boxer Rebellion.  He never married.  Isabel Burton mentions him often in her Life, e.g. as the Captain of the Iris, and RFB noted that the Egyptians called him “samur”, Arabic for dog.[235]  Seymour left a brief reminiscence of the Burtons at Trieste in his memoirs—see Volume 3.

163.      Shand, Alexander Innes (1832-1907).

Scottish lawyer, journalist, critic, novelist, travel writer and biographer, educated at the University of Aberdeen.  He met Burton at the Athenaeum Club in London, and his description of him is given in Volume 3: “At the club he lunched alone, and generally with a book before him”.  His many publications are now mostly forgotten.  The acquaintance seems to have been slight: no correspondence between the two is known to survive, and Burton does not mention him in any of his books.

164.      Shaw, Dr. Henry Norton (?-1868).

Assistant-Secretary of the RGS from 1849 until 1863, a position that was salaried.  He was born in the Danish West Indies, the son of a Danish General, and was partly educated in New York.  He became an Assistant Surgeon in the Merchant Navy, retiring to work for the RGS.  He was known for his success in recruiting Fellows to the society, improving its financial footing.  He also founded the Kosmos Dining Club, which Burton was a member of.  A personality clash with Francis Galton, an Honorary Secretary, led to the resignation of both men in 1863, after which Shaw left the Society altogether and was Consul at Sante-Croix in the West Indies (under Danish jurisdiction) until his death there.  The Kosmos Dining Club was continued after his departure by H.W. Bates.  He produced a revised edition of J. R. Jackson’s What to Observe; or, the Traveller’s Remembrancer (London: Houlston & Wright, 1861)—an annotated copy of the third edition survives in Burton’s personal library—and also edited many other books of travel, e.g. Narrative of a Voyage to the West Indies and Mexico in the Years 1599-1602 by Samuel de Champlain (1859).

Shaw was Secretary of the West Indian Association and was an active organizer in the annual meetings of the British Association for the Advancement of Science.  Although he was never a Fellow of the RGS, he was very active and influential in editing their publications; they granted him 500 pounds on his retirement and a “Norton Shaw Testimonial Fund” was started to gather donations.  See the notice by Sir Roderick Murchison in the Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London.[236]  His brother Geronimo Shaw also had dealings with the RGS.

Shaw knew Burton since 1852 at the latest, and put him in touch with many figures who were influential in geographical circles.  They maintained an active, warm and extensive correspondence, both personally and in an official capacity, which appears in Volume 1.  After the break with Speke, Shaw was placed, much like Francis Galton, in the difficult position of maintaining friendly relations with both men, without appearing to choose sides.

Many years after the death of Shaw, Karl Pearson stumbled on rumours still circulating within the RGS that some indelicate scandal was associated with Norton Shaw’s departure, vaguely involving a woman and an apartment.[237]

165.      Shelley, Major Edward (1827-1890).

Soldier and restless traveller, a nephew of the poet Percy Byshe Shelley.  He joined the Hussars in 1844 at age 17, but in 1847 transferred to the Lancers, and was promoted to Captain in 1848.  He had the urge to travel, and some independent means, so he resigned his commission in 1849, and travelled to Africa in search of Lake Ngami, leaving on the 23rd July that year for the Cape.  On May 1st 1850, in the company of fellow officers Charles Bethune Ewart and Bushe,[238] he was arrested and turned back at the Malopa River by the Boers, who resented British incursions into the interior—news of this and similar incidents persuaded Francis Galton’s expedition to seek Ngami through South-West Africa instead.  After some more years wandering around the Kalahari, and South America, Shelley joined up with Beatson’s Bashi-Bazouks during the Crimean War.  There he met Burton, who was Beatson’s Chief of Staff, and was drawn in to the bitter Beatson-Vivian controversy, which started when the fractious Bazouks were transferred by Lord Panmure from Beatson to General Smith, and it was rumoured that Beatson, with Burton’s encouragement, urged his officers and soldiers to resist the transfer—Beatson viewed the Bazouks as his personal creation.  Shelley himself was reluctant to support allegations of mutiny against either Beatson or Burton—his letter stating so is in Volume 1.

He later travelled continuously, with no particular purpose, in China and Australia, and in South, Central and North America.  He visited many of the places in South America that Burton would later visit when he was stationed in Brazil.  Stopping off in San Francisco, en route to Honolulu, he encountered Amelia Ransom Neville,[239] who would later meet Burton in 1860, and leave memoirs of both men—see Volume 1 for her encounter with Burton.  In 1866 he was back in England, where he finally settled down, and inherited his Uncle’s baronetcy shortly before he died in 1890.  Shelley’s surviving travel journals have now been published—see Lawrence Woods Edward Shelley's Journal, 1856-61.[240]

166.      Shepheard, Samuel (1816-1866).

Hotel proprietor in Cairo, where Shepheard’s British Hotel became the first resort for any traveler of the mid-19th Century.  Burton stayed there when he was recovering from his Mecca journey in 1853-4, and on the way through to East Africa.  Burton befriended Shepheard and corresponded with him, though Shepheard’s biographer records that ‘tradition has it that he considered Burton somewhat of a poseur.’[241]

167.      Sheridan, Richard Brinsley (1806?-1888).

Grandson of his namesake the playwright Richard Brinsley Sheridan (1751-1816).  Son of Thomas Sheridan (1775-1813).  Based at Frampton House, near Dorchester, which he had inherited by marriage and became known as a literary salon during his tenure.  Whig MP for Shaftesbury (1845-52) and Dorchester (1852-68).  The racy society beauty and authoress Caroline Sheridan, Mrs. Norton, was his younger sister.  The Burtons knew the “Brinsley Sheridans” well, visiting them whenever they were in England. Isabel mentions them in her correspondence several times, and in her Life.

168.      Skene, James Henry (1812-1886).

Scottish soldier, traveller and diplomat.  Served in the 73rd Perthshire Regiment.  From 1852 onward he was Vice-Consul, then Consul, and finally Consul-General at Aleppo.  Author of Anadol: the Last Home of the Faithful (London 1853) and The Frontier Lands of the Christian and the Turk, Comprising Travel in the Regions of the Lower Danube in 1850 and 1851 (London 1853) and With Lord Stratford in the Crimean war (London: R. Bentley, 1883), among other works.  During the Crimean war he served Stratford de Redcliffe, the British Ambassador to the Ottoman Empire, and became embroiled in a dispute with General Beatson and the Bashi-Bazouks.  Skene was highly critical of Beatson’s conduct when in charge of the Bashi-Bazouks, and therefore at odds with Burton, who later wrote of Skene that “he was known on the spot to be taking notes, that every malignant won his ear, and that he did not cease to gratify the Ambassador’s prejudices by reporting the worst.  General Beatson was peppery, like most old Indians, and instead of keeping diplomatically on terms with Mr. Skene, he chose to have a violent personal quarrel with him.”[242]  One of Skene’s reports to Stratford de Redcliffe about the Bazouks, which includes a section about a multiple duel challenge involving Burton, is included in Volume 1.

169.      Sladen, Douglas Brooke Wheelton (1856-1947).

English author, son of a solicitor.  An Oxford graduate, he spent some time in Australia.  Returned to London and edited Who’s Who.  Sladen recalled meeting Burton at an Oxford event in the 1880s—see Volume 3.

170.      Smalley, George Washburn (1833-1916).

Foreign Correspondent for the New York Tribune in London, after making a name as a reporter during the American Civil War.  He met Burton in London at a party in Belgravia and left a detailed description of the evening—see Volume 3.

171.      Smith, Laura A.

Journalist, who published in the Paternoster Review and the Nineteenth Century, sometimes as “Miss Laura A. Smith” (possibly “Alexandrine”).  She wrote a worshipful profile of Burton, whom she knew briefly at Tangiers circa 1886, describing him as “a Hercules of literary power and universal tact”—see Volume 3.

172.      Smith, William Robertson (1846-1894).

Polymath from Aberdeenshire, son of a church minister, educated at home and at Aberdeen University.  Minister of the Free Church of Scotland and Professor of Hebrew at Aberdeen Free Church College until his trial for heresy in the late 1870s, after questioning the liberal truth of the Bible in articles (“Angel”, “Bible”) in the Encyclopædia Britannica.  He was suspended and then dismissed from Aberdeen Free Church College, after a vote of no confidence.  Instead he became Professor of Arabic at Cambridge, succeeding the murdered E. H. Palmer, and later the editor of the Encyclopædia Britannica.  While he was suspended from his chair at Aberdeen, between 1879 and 1881, he travelled in Egypt, Palestine and Arabia, going as far as Taif.  He was the author of The Prophets of Israel and their place in history, to the close of the 8th century B.C. (Edinburgh: Black 1882), Kinship and Marriage in Early Arabia (Cambridge University Press, 1885) and many other related works.  Robertson Smith travelled with Burton in Egypt—“On April 10, 1880, Professor W. Robertson Smith, of Aberdeen, and I, set out together with the view of visiting the Coptic convents in the Desert about the Natron Lakes to the north-west of Cairo”[243].  They seem to have corresponded extensively—see Volume 3.  Smith died at age 47 of tuberculosis.

173.      Smithers, Leonard (1861-1907).

A solicitor from Sheffield, an author, translator and all-round entrepreneur of erotica, and late 19th century avant-garde literature.  His father was a dentist in Sheffield, from a family said to have emigrated to England from France after the Revolution.  Though he practised as a solicitor from the early 1880s, Smithers was increasingly drawn to the world of rare book collecting, more especially to erotica.  In Sheffield he met Harry Sidney Nichols, a book dealer and printer, who dealt in under the counter material.  Together they formed the Erotika Biblion Society as a means for maintaining plausible deniability when publishing illicit material, in the same way that Burton had started the fictitious Kama Shastra Society.

Smithers became known to the Burtons in 1885, as a subscriber to the Arabian Nights.  He soon developed a friendship with RFB, channeling rarities from his rapidly expanding personal collection to him.  Burton was delighted, being well-versed in off-beat literature of the sort that Smithers was interested in.  The first product of the Erotika Biblion Society, by Smithers alone, was an edition of Priapeia, a collection of scatological Latin epigrams, threatening would-be burglars with unmanly violation and emasculation.  Burton offered some helpful criticism, leading to a joint second edition, for which Burton supplied verse translations.  The work was complete by early 1890, and was published toward the end of the year.  However, Burton suppressed his association with it at the last minute, out of fear for his Consular pension, at the insistence of Isabel and (most likely) on the advice of F. F Arbuthnot. 

Smithers and Nichols moved down to London in 1891, setting themselves up as high-end rare book dealers and niche publishers.  They went on to issue Burton’s verse translation of the Carmina by Catullus, which he had been collaborating with Smithers on before his death—or at least as much as Isabel decided was decent, after she burnt the manuscript.  Smithers supplied his own notes and annotations.  He also reissued Burton’s Kasidah and the Arabian Nights, in several variant editions, and helped with the production of Isabel’s uniform edition of Burton’s works.  After his partnership with Nichols dissolved in 1895, Smithers published Aubrey Beardsley and Oscar Wilde (e.g. A Ballad of Reading Gaol) along with other ‘decadents’ of the 1890s.  He became known for sumptuous book production, with fine materials and craftsmanship.  However, a grandiose lifestyle and overly ambitious publishing ventures involving hard-to-sell avant-garde literature led to his bankruptcy in 1900.  A downward spiral into poverty, drink and opiates followed, during which he supported himself through increasingly desperate scams and pirated editions; and, finally, an early death in 1907, at age 46.  His son Jack left an account of his father’s life and his own unusual childhood in The Early Life & Vicissitudes of Jack Smithers (London: Martin Secker, 1939).  An extensive correspondence between Burton and Smithers survives and appears in Volume 3, covering their collaboration on the Priapeia and Catullus translations, and showing their growing friendship.

174.      Soldene, Emily (1838-1912).

An English singer, actress and novelist.  Her memoirs created a minor sensation when they were first published, and include a brief account of a meeting with Burton in the early 1870s—see Volume 2.

175.      Speke, John Hanning (1827-1864).

An officer in the Indian Army.  Born in Devon, at Orleigh Court near Bideford.  His father was Captain William Speke, of the 14th Dragoons, his mother Georgina Hanning, from a family which had made money in business.  Educated at Barnstaple Grammar school and a college near Blackheath in London.  From a young age he suffered from ophthalmia, possibly due to tuberculosis.  Very little else is known about his early life, as no documents survive.  The family knew the Duke of Wellington, who recommended him for a position in the Indian Army, which he joined as a cadet in the Bengal Native Infantry, arriving in June 1844.  Promoted to Lieutenant in 1850, and Captain in 1858, seeing action in the Sikh War of 1849.  During this period he used frequent leaves of absence to go on trophy and specimen-hunting trips to Tibet, as the sole officer, mapping regions of the hill country he crossed.[244]

Speke stopped at Aden on furlough in September 1854, intending to go hunting in Somali-land, and ran into Burton’s expedition.  Burton officially enrolled him and had his leave cancelled.  Allen’s Indian Mail reported a little enigmatically that Speke had “obtained three years' leave of absence, to count as service, in order to join Lieut. Burton in his expedition to the Somalee country. … with the conviction on his mind that he will never return, from sheer weariness of civilization.”[245]  His first task on the expedition, to explore the previously unreached Wady Nogal in the interior, ended in failure—which he attributed to his duplicitous guides and interpreter—and he was forced to return to Aden.  After this he was severely wounded at the incident in Berberah, where the expedition had camped to prepare for departure, in the early hours of April 19th 1854.  Although he was captured and then stabbed multiple times with a spear while tied up, his relatively easy escape after this suggests that, as with Burton and his companions, the attackers were more interested in plunder than murder—notwithstanding the death of his fellow expeditionist Lieut. Stroyan in the heat of the raid.

After Speke recovered more rapidly than expected—he said that his wounds ‘literally closed as wounds do in an India-rubber ball after prickings with a penknife’[246]—he served in the Crimean War through 1855, in the Turkish Contingent commanded by Vivian.  Then after the war he once again accompanied Burton on the East African expedition of 1856 to 1859, abandoning plans for a private hunting expedition in the Caucasus at Burton’s request.  Continually tormented by malaria and ophthalmia, they discovered Lake Tanganyika in the interior on Feb. 13th 1858, after six months of travel, but they were forced to cut their journey short by a lack of supplies.  During their return to the coast Speke discovered Lake Victoria on July 30th 1858, after setting off to the north with Burton’s agreement on his own trip from the Arab trading station Taborah,[247] while Burton stayed behind to organize their return and to recuperate his health.  Speke correctly supposed that the Lake he had discovered was the headwaters of the White Nile.  Though both men later stated that Burton was immediately skeptical, a letter from Burton to the RGS from Aden, on the way home, suggests of the Nyanza that “there are grave reasons for believing it to be the source of the principal feeder of the White Nile”.[248]  Here Burton appears to have been accommodating—as the leader of the expedition—the views of his fellow participant Speke, rather than his own.

In the aftermath of the journey a rift emerged between Speke and Burton.  The correspondence reproduced here shows that Speke never accepted Burton’s authority and rankled under his leadership, costively accumulating grievances at what he thought were past slights, and actively seeking opportunities to break free from Burton’s influence.  When Burton refused to pay some of the porters on their return to Zanzibar in March 1859—citing mutinous behaviour on the trip and placing responsibility for additional bonuses on the former Zanzibar Consul Atkins Hamerton—Speke encouraged the new Consul C. P. Rigby to submit a formal complaint to the East India Company about Burton, which Speke endorsed.  Rigby, who was initially reluctant, appears to have had his own reasons for disliking and distrusting Burton, who was friendly with Rigby’s arch-enemy at Zanzibar, the French Ambassador Ladislas Cochet.  Whatever the merits of this case were, Speke and Rigby pursued and returned to it relentlessly, using it as a weapon against Burton in years to come.  Before the charge was filed, however, Speke exploited a two-week stopover at Aden by Burton, en route to London, to beat him to the capital and present his discovery of the Nyanza to the RGS.  It is likely that Speke, immediately on his arrival, privately complained to the President of the RGS about Burton’s conduct. 

Ostensibly maintaining friendly relations with Burton throughout 1859, Speke continued to cultivate Rigby during this period, and their correspondence shows fostering of a shared and virulent dislike for Burton, in private.  Before this was revealed in Rigby’s official charges against Burton, a dispute also arose about the financing of the Expedition, which had overspent its allowance of 1,000 pounds.  Burton had borne the extra cost and requested that Speke help him defray it.  Speke took the position that while he had indeed promised to pay half, he would only do so if and when the Bombay government refused to refund the extra money, whereas Burton argued that Speke ought to first pay his portion and then wait for his share of any refund, instead of expecting Burton to carry the entire cost till then.  This dispute escalated and was inflamed by the revelation of the complaint about the porters, which Burton interpreted as a duplicitous conspiracy on the part of Speke and Rigby.  Ultimately it was only toward the end of the following year that Speke paid his share of the cost overrun, via his brother William, many months after the refund was refused.

Speke returned to Africa in command of his own RGS and Government-sponsored Nile expedition on the 17th August 1860, accompanied by an old friend from India, James A. Grant.  On his triumphant return in 1863 he claimed to have shown beyond any doubt that Victoria was the Nile source, having retraced the route of the first expedition to the lake, travelled up close to its western shore, and then journeyed down the Nile from Victoria to Egypt.  But his route and other observations left a lot of room for criticism, which he exacerbated by declining to publish a detailed description through the RGS, preferring to publish a book of his own through Blackwood, who were prepared to pay 2,000 pounds for it.  He now became involved in a renewal of his bitter dispute with Burton, who along with many other geographers doubted his results, which were only vindicated by Stanley and other explorers in the mid-1870s.  On top of this he became involved in a separate public dispute with John Petherick, a Consul and explorer who had been sponsored by public subscription to relieve Speke at Gondokoro, the last southward station on the Nile, but had been delayed—Speke considered his support grossly negligent, refusing to accept his help when they met, and implied in public that Petherick had been using the money subscribed to dabble in the slave trade.  A furious response from Petherick and his relatives followed. 

By mid-1864 Speke had isolated himself, even courting the Emperor of France to sponsor a scheme he had drawn up for Christianizing the benighted in Central Africa.  In the meantime he continued to spread complaints about both Petherick and Burton, who he now accused to trying to poison him in Africa.  After he addressed some of these wild allegations to the Anthropological Society, they barred him from entering their premises.  Sir Roderick Murchison at the RGS complained that he had assembled a pile of letters labelled “Speke’s ravings”.  Many years later Speke’s companion James Grant revived these allegations with former Council members of the RGS, and hinted at them in the press.

Speke wrote two books covering his trips to Africa, Journal of the Discovery of the Source of the Nile (Edinburgh: Blackwood, 16th December 1863) and What Led to the Discovery of the Source of the Nile (Edinburgh: Blackwood, 30th July 1864)[249].  As with Burton’s published accounts after their quarrel, the events described in these are distorted by the dispute between the two men, and Speke attempted to minimize Burton’s roles and capabilities wherever possible—a favour reciprocated by Burton’s own accounts of Speke.

On Sept. 15th 1864, during an afternoon’s partridge shooting near Bath, with his cousin George Pargiter Fuller—the day before a meeting of the British Association at Bath, at which he was scheduled to debate Burton on the Nile sources—Speke died of a self-inflicted gunshot wound.  The shot entered his body on his left side, below the chest, passing close to his heart and through his lungs, severing the major vessels. At the time Speke had climbed on to a low loose stone wall, following his cousin, who was some 60 yards ahead.  The left barrel only of the gun had discharged.  A formal inquest held the next day ruled that the shooting was an accident. 

A memorial was subsequently erected to Speke in Hyde Park, and a subscription fund was started, to which Burton—who was never a wealthy man—contributed more generously than most.  Almost all of Speke’s critics discreetly dropped the subject after his death, except Burton, who not only published a swingeing attack on Speke in The Nile Basin (1864) but went on to return to the subject of the Nile and his ‘quondam friend’ many times afterward, in the columns of journals and the footnotes of his books, even devoting a dismissive postscript to ‘Captain Speke’ in Zanzibar Vol. 2 (1872).

Figure 32.  Speke Memorial Fund.[250]

Title: plate

176.      Spencer, Walter Thomas (1863-1936).

An Antiquarian book dealer and Dickens specialist, whose store was in New Oxford Street.  He knew Leonard Smithers well.  Burton was apparently one of his customers, and Spencer left a brief sighting of Burton and the Wilde-Whistler set in his memoirs—see Volume 3.  He was also one of Thomas Wright’s sources for his biography of Burton.

177.      Stanley, Henry Morton (1841-1904).

African explorer, newspaper correspondent and travel writer of Welsh descent (christened “John Rowlands”).  Started his early career in America,[251]  but made his name by relieving Livingstone at Ujiji in 1871, to the annoyance of the RGS, who distrusted his motives and disliked his methods.  Subsequently crossed the African continent in an epic journey from 1874-7, confirming Speke’s description of Lake Victoria, by circumnavigating it, and tracing the Congo from Lake Tanganyika to the sea.  He later founded the Congo Free State as a Belgian dependency.  Stanley’s hostility to the RGS, which was never at ease with him, established a bond between himself and Burton.  They first met in London in 1872—Stanley thought he showed “savage independence”—and established a correspondence.  In 1990 they met by chance in Switzerland, at Maloja, where they were staying in the same hotel, and several group photographs from this occasion survive.  Stanley also left an interesting reminiscence of Burton in his autobiography, which appears in Volume 3.

178.      Steinhaüser, Dr. John Frederick (1814-1866).[252]

A close friend of Burton’s from his Indian days, with the Dickensian nickname “Stiggins”.  He entered the Royal College of Surgeons in May 1838, but after that he became a surgeon in the Bombay Artillery, arriving in December of 1845.  Posted to Scinde in 1846, where he spent time in Hyderabad and Karachi, and first met Burton.  He served in the Second Sikh War of 1848 to 1849, and took part in the Siege of Mooltan.  Subsequently he qualified as an interpreter in Hindustani in 1852, and then became the Civil Surgeon at Aden on the 19th May 1853.  Burton recalled that “It may be permitted me also to note that this translation is a natural outcome of my Pilgrimage to Al-Medinah and Meccah.  Arriving at Aden in the (so-called) winter of 1852, I put up with my old and dear friend, Steinhaeuser, to whose memory this volume is inscribed; and, when talking over Arabia and the Arabs, we at once came to the same conclusion that, while the name of this wondrous treasury of Moslem folk-lore is familiar to almost every English child, no general reader is aware of the valuables it contains, nor indeed will the door open to any but Arabists.  Before parting we agreed to ‘collaborate’ and produce a full, complete, unvarnished, uncastrated copy of the great original, my friend taking the prose and I the metrical part; and we corresponded upon the subject for years.  But whilst I was in the Brazil, Steinhaeuser died suddenly of apoplexy at Berne in Switzerland and, after the fashion of Anglo-India, his valuable MSS. left at Aden were dispersed, and very little of his labours came into my hands.”[253]  And “Steinhaeuser and I began and ended our work with the first Bulak (‘Bui.’) Edition printed at the port of Cairo in A.H. 1251 =A.D. 1835.  But when preparing my MSS, for print I found the text incomplete, many of the stories being given in epitome and not a few ruthlessly mutilated with head or feet wanting.”[254]

Burton intended “Stiggins” to accompany the East Africa Expedition of 1857-1859, but Steinhaüser could not get a passage to Zanzibar in time.  On the way back to England after the expedition, Burton and Speke stopped off at Aden and both stayed with Steinhaüser.  “We afterwards wandered together over the United States, and it is my comfort, now that he also is gone, to think that no unkind thought, much less an unfriendly word, ever broke our fair companionship. His memory is doubly dear to me”.[255]  Stiggins did not accompany him to Salt Lake City.  Burton described him as a “sound scholar, good naturalist, skilful practitioner, with rare personal qualities”.[256] He died, Burton said of apoplexy, at Berne in Switzerland.[257]

179.      Stevenson, Frederick James (1835-1926).

Engineer and explorer, born in London of Scottish parents, William Stevenson (1795-1854) and Louisa Rudd, and educated in Ayrshire, on Free Church of Scotland principles.  He was articled to an engineer, working on canal construction.  Between 1863 and 1869 he travelled in North and South America.  He first worked on railway construction in North America, some time before the Civil War, memorably employing Thomas Edison as a train newsboy and vendor in Detroit.  But in 1863 he left the business to embark on private expeditions to the Mammoth Caves of Kentucky, and to Havana.  He went on to South America, including Brazil, the Argentine and Patagonia (1867-1868), and then Chile, Peru and Bolivia (1868-1869).  Various specimens he collected on his travels are still held by the British Museum.  He returned to England in 1870, but not before stopping off to explore the West Indies en route.  Arriving in Europe he set off to witness the Franco Prussian War.  After this little is known, beyond that he educated and ran a camp for schoolboys from around 1890 onward—“it became his constant practice to entertain parties of schoolboys to enormous teas”.[258]  Stevenson was given letters to deliver to Burton in Brazil, in November 1867, and left an interesting account of the meeting in his diary, describing the Consul as “resolute and determined” but “reckless in conversation”—see Volume 2.  Stevenson’s complete travel diaries, which were only published in abbreviated form, are held at the RGS, and may contain more material about Burton.

180.      Stisted, Georgiana Martha (1846?-1903).

“Miss G. M. Stisted of Norwood”, a niece of Burton, the daughter of his sister Maria (1823–1894), who had married Sir Henry William Stisted (1817-1885), the first Lieutenant-Governor of Ontario (1867-8).  Georgiana, who was unmarried, left a reminiscence of her uncle in Temple Bar,[259] and later wrote a worshipful biography (Stisted, 1896) claiming to represent the position of the Burton family against Isabel’s Life.  In this, Isabel—“handsome, fascinating Isabel Arundell”—worships but is not worshipped, nor is her pursuit of her religion, to which Georgiana attributes Burton’s recall from Damascus.  In particular, she scoffs at the supposed deathbed conversion of Burton.  Aside from that and a few scattered anecdotes there is surprisingly little that is new in her biography, large chunks of which were just paraphrased or quoted from Burton’s own works, and the attacks on Isabel were not well-received.  She had earlier published an angry 3-volume novel, A Fireside King (Tinsley, 1880), which the Athenaeum thought “by no means badly put together”,[260] while the Spectator wondered “It is difficult to believe that any writer can have continued to be in a rage during all the time that must have been consumed in the production of a novel in three volumes”.[261]  Her sister Maria “Minnie” Stisted had died in 1878.  She bred pedigreed cats, and died in 1903 at her home Grazeley in Norwood, after a long seclusion due to illness.  She was buried in Chirbury Churchyard in West Shropshire.[262]

181.      Stocks, John Ellerton (1822-1854).

A doctor and botanist from Hull, in the service of the East India Company, where he was an assistant surgeon.  He had trained at University College London.  T.H. Huxley had been a classmate of Stocks, and recalled:[263] “The examination began at eleven.  At two they brought in lunch. It was a good meal enough, but the circumstances were not particularly favourable to enjoyment, so after a short delay we resumed our work. It began to be evident between whom the contest lay, and the others determined that I was one man's competitor and Stocks (he is now in the East India service) the other. Scratch, scratch, scratch! Four o'clock came, the usual hour of closing the examination, but Stocks and I had not half done, so with the consent of the others we petitioned for an extension. The examiner was willing to let us go on as long as we liked. Never did I see man write like Stocks; one might have taken him for an attorney's clerk writing for his dinner. We went on. I had finished a little after eight, he went on till near nine, and then we had tea and dispersed.”

While stationed in Sindh, where he was appointed vaccinator and collector of drugs, he co-authored a notable early paper on the region with Burton, which was submitted to the Pringle Commission of 1847-8: “Division of Time, Articles of Cultivation, and Modes of Intoxication, in Scinde”.[264]  Stocks, “whose brilliant attainments as a botanist, whose long and enterprising journeys, and whose eminently practical bent of mind had twice recommended him for the honors and trials of African exploration” was originally intended to join the Somali Expedition. 

Stocks had returned to England on Furlough in 1853 to deposit and arrange his collection of botanical specimens at Kew, and complete a long memoir on Sindh.  En route, he ran into Burton at Shepheard’s Hotel in Cairo, and they discussed an abandoned Government project from 1851 to explore the Somali-land interior, which Stocks had volunteered to join—Burton invited him to join forces to complete it.  Cheerfully notifying Norton Shaw at the RGS, he wrote “Anent Stocks. I gave him a note to you …  The fellow writes well but is modest—shameful defect!  I intended him to accompany me to Zanzibar, and I verily believe he would still do it.  Above all things he's an excellent chap, but a mad bitch.  Very mad.” [265]  In 1854, at Cottingham near Hull, during a “stay with some very intimate friends at the place of his birth, he was seized with an apoplectic stroke, from which he partially recovered; but a second, after an interval of ten days, carried him off.”[266]  He had died on Wednesday 30th August, shortly after permission to proceed with the Expedition had been received from the East India Company.

182.      Stoker, Abraham “Bram” (1847-1912).

Athletic Irish novelist, born in Dublin of parents who were originally from Sligo.  He is popularly remembered as the author of the enduring horror story Dracula and tales like The Lair of the White Worm.  He graduated from Trinity College, Dublin, where he studied mathematics.  Although he qualified as a barrister, he never practiced, turning to journalism instead.  He managed the legendary actor Henry Irving for many years, after one of his positive reviews of the actor had attracted Irving’s notice; through him Stoker came to know Burton, leaving vivid descriptions in his memoirs of several encounters between 1878 and 1885—see Volumes 2 and 3.  Burton dedicated Volume III of the Nights to Irving, who he had first met in London in 1875.  It may have been through Burton that Stoker first met the Hungarian explorer Ármin Vámbéry,[267] whose Transylvanian table-talk has been suggested as a source of inspiration for Dracula.  He died of syphilis in 1912, not long after the Titanic sunk.

183.      Stokes, Sir John (1825–1902).

Soldier in the Royal Engineers, born at Cobham in Kent.  He trained at the Woolwich Academy, and was  involved in the War of the Axe (1846-7) in South Africa and the Crimean War.  Later he was a Vice President of the Suez Canal Company.  He briefly met Burton at Alexandria in 1881, and left the mention which appears in Volume 3—“He was an interesting man but I was so disgusted with his language that I took an early opportunity of leaving the table”.  Isabel, who he met at Trieste, made a better impression on him—“almost as eccentric as her husband, but a fine looking woman and very tall”.

184.      Stroyan, William (1825?-1855).

Lieutenant in the Indian Navy, joining on the 5th March 1842.  Received his commission on 8th Feb. 1848.  Served on the “Elphinstone” in 1848 and on the Palinurus surveying expedition of 1850.  Surveyed the Punjaub river system in 1853.  Accompanied Burton on the Somali Expedition of 1854-5.  Burton had known Stroyan on the Sindh Survey, and later wrote that he “applied to the Bombay Government for the assistance of Lieut. William Stroyan, I. N., an officer distinguished by his surveys on the coast of Western India, in Sindh, and on the Panjab Rivers.  It was not without difficulty that such valuable services were spared for the deadly purpose of penetrating into Eastern Africa.  All obstacles, however, were removed by their ceaseless and energetic efforts, who had fostered the author’s plans, and early in the autumn of 1854, Lieut. Stroyan received leave to join the Expedition.”[268]  He was killed, aged 30, during the attack on Burton’s party at Berberah in the early hours of April 19th 1855.  His heart was speared through, and his skull was crushed by a blow from a club or a stone. 

185.      Swinburne, Algernon (1837-1909).[269]

Lyrical Poet, the son of Admiral Charles Henry Swinburne (1797-1877), and  Lady Jane Henrietta Ashburnham (1809-1896).  Largely raised on the Isle of Wight, he was educated at Eton, but left for reasons now thought to be related to a growing fondness for the flogging inflicted on him there.  He was at Balliol College in Oxford from 1856 to 1861, but left without taking a degree.  During his time there he had fallen in with Dante Gabriel Rossetti and the Pre-Raphaelites, but had found the gateway to a much wider circle of influence through an invitation to meet Monckton Milnes some time in May 1861.  At one of Milnes’ 10 o’clock breakfasts, on the 5th of June 1861, he was introduced to Burton and the two men took to each other at once.  

On the 12th of August 1861 the Burtons and Swinburne were invited to Milnes’ country estate at Fryston in Yorkshire.  They were joined by the Parisian Bluestocking Mary Clarke Mohl, Holman Hunt, Francis Turner Palgrave, and the array of emerging and established travellers, artists, political and literary figures that Milnes liked to mix with and bump into each other.  This was the first of many Swinburne visits to Fryston, where he developed a habit of staying on long after the other company had left.  By this time he had already shown signs of dissipation, a process which was not reversed by his new introductions to Burton, Frederick Hankey, Edward Vaux Bellamy, Colonel John Studholme Hodgson and the rest of the Milnes-Burton coterie.  Even though Burton soon left for Fernando Po, he kept in touch with both Swinburne and Milnes, and whenever he returned to London on leave over the coming years, the coterie reunited. 

In 1865 Burton induced Swinburne to join the Anthropological Society that he had co-founded two years earlier.  With an inner circle of self-styled ‘Cannibals’ they dined together as the at Bertolini’s Hotel[270] near Leicester Square where Swinburne sardonically intoned a Catechism, piously pleading for the roasting, boiling, squeezing and jamming of all the ‘milky, vegetable race’, apostates to the Cannibal Faith:[271]

Preserve us from our enemies,
Thou who art Lord of suns & skies,
Whose meat & drink is flesh in pies
    And blood in bowls!
Of thy sweet mercy, damn their eyes,
    And damn their souls!

The cannibal of just behaviour
Acknowledges the Lord his saviour,
With gifts of whose especial favour
    He hath been crammed,
To whom an offering of sweet savour
    Are all the damned.

O Lord, thy people know full well
That all who eat not flesh & fell,
Who cannot rightly speak or spell
    Thy various names,
Shall be for ever boiled in hell
    Among the flames.

Glad tidings of great exhultation
Proclaim we to the chosen nation;
To all men else in every station
    The joyful story
That they are going to damnation
    And we to glory.

In pits of sulfur thou wilt cram them,
In chains of burning brimstone jam them,
Squeeze them like figs, like wadding ram them,
    With flame surround them;
O Lord of love, confound and damn them
    Damn & confound them!

Grind them to pieces small & gritty,
O thou whose names are love & pity!
Roast brown all faces that were pretty,
    All black even blacker;
Strip off the trappings of their city,
    Paint, plumes, & lacquer.

The foes thy people seek to kill,
Even as a devil do thou grill!
O let thy stormy anger still
    Shake them like jellies!
Give thou their carcases to fill
    Thy servants’ bellies!

The heathen, whose ungodly lip
Doth in ungodly pewter dip,
Curse his gin, whiskey, rum & flip,
    Strong ale & bumbo![272]
Scourge him with anger as a whip
    O Mumbo-Jumbo!

The men who eat their neighbours not,
For all such has the Lord made hot
(To boil their souls as in a pot)
    The fire of hell:
But if thou leave not me to rot
    Then all is well.

The milky, vegetable race
Of such as have not seen thy face,
Lord, damn them by thy special grace
    Thou who art gracious.
And raise into the holy place
    Me, Athanasius.[273]

A mace was placed on the dinner table, next to the President, in the shape of a negro head in ebony chewing a thigh bone in ivory—Swinburne called it “Ecce Homo”.  But Burton was soon off again, in April 1865, to his posting at Santos in Brazil.  Swinburne teasingly wrote to his fellow-flagellant Milnes, “As my tempter and favourite audience has gone to Santos I may hope to be a good boy again, after such a ‘jolly good swishing’ as Rodin alone can and dare administer. … The Captain was too many for me; and I may have shaken the thyrsus[274] in your face.  But after this half I mean to be no end good.” 

Houghton must have said something about dissipation under Burton’s influence, to which Swinburne unflappably responded “As to anything you have fished (how I say not) out of Mrs. Burton to the discredit of my ‘temperance, soberness and chastity’ as the Catechism puts it—how can she who believes in the excellence of ‘Richard’ fail to disbelieve in the virtues of any other man?  En moi vous voyez Les Malheurs de la Vertu; en lui Les Prospérités du Vice.[275]  In effect it is not given to all his juniors to tenir tête à[276] Burton—but I deny that his hospitality ever succeeded in upsetting me—as he himself on the morrow of a latish séance admitted with approbation, allowing that he had thought to get me off my legs, but my native virtue and circumspection were too much for him.”[277]  But as Edmund Gosse remarked, nothing was easier than to get Swinburne “off his legs”.

From Brazil Burton kept up a bantering correspondence with Swinburne (2 letters survive and are given in Volume 2), whose book Poems and Ballads (1866) was attracting increasingly hostile attention: “One anonymous letter from Dublin threatened me, if I did not suppress my book within six weeks from that date, with castration … he had seen his gamekeeper do it with cats.”  He promised Burton that “I have in hand a scheme of mixed verse and prose—a sort of etude a la Balzac plus the poetry—which I flatter myself will be more offensive and objectionable to Britannia than anything I have yet done”.  Burton replied that “I fairly warn you that at the least sign not of movement retrograde but of remission in advancing you will be bellowed by the British hound”.  By now Swinburne had (privately) tired of Monckton Milnes, whose gentle advice about reigning in his drinking he found tedious, and Burton sympathized: “I fear that unless you pall with abject poverty or paralysis you will see no more of our mutual friend Houghton.[278]  I hope to arouse his wrath by a Canto of Camões which I have sent to Macmillan”.[279]  At the same time Isabel was writing to Houghton asking after “poor little Swinburne,”—“I am sorry for him as far as the drinking propensities go.  He is simply possessed by an ‘unclean imp’”.[280]

When Burton returned in 1869 to Europe, en route to his new posting in Damascus, he met up with Swinburne at the end of July for a water cure at Vichy through the month of August.  Swinburne may have been looking for a cure for his chronic dysentery.  Together Burton and Swinburne tramped over the hilly countryside, returning spent in the evenings to the Hotel de France.  They climbed the steep Puy de Dôme, 5000 ft. above sea level, investigated the cathedrals and gathered wild flowers to press.  Swinburne, whose mother disapproved of Burton, tried to change her mind with enthusiastic reports home: “I feel now as if I knew for the first time what it was to have an elder brother.”  Two weeks after they arrived they were joined by Isabel, and by Adelaide Sartoris, who looked Swinburne up in the hotel register.  With Mrs. Sartoris was her close friend Frederick Leighton, and this may have been the first time that Burton met his best-known portrayer.  When the month-long water cure was over—“The waters did me some good but I was delighted to leave the hideous hole with its jaundices gout and diabetes.  Out of Paris the French are perfect savages”[281]—the Burtons toured the Auvergne with Swinburne.  At the end of August they were off overland through Italy to take their boat to the Levant, while Swinburne headed north to drop in on Frederick Hankey and Victor Hugo in Paris, and after that back to England. 

In subsequent years Burton would always reunite with Swinburne whenever he was back in London.  By 1872, in the long interlude between Burton’s recall from Damascus and his posting in Trieste, Swinburne had already been expelled from the Arts club, either for dancing or for stomping on the hats of other members, depending on who told the story; so they were back at the Cannibal Club—”I shall come and bring my friend (Simeon) Solomon.  Yours in the Cannibal Faith, A. C. Swinburne.”[282]  The two maintained a steady and affectionate correspondence, and Burton appears often in Swinburne’s letters to others, usually as an exemplar of ruggedness, sometimes as the whole cloth from which to cut a red flag to wave at propriety: “that lost love of Burton’s, the beloved and blue object of his Central African Affections, whose caudal charms and simious seductions were too strong for the narrow laws of Levitical or Mosaic prudery which would confine the jewel of a man to the lotus of a merely human female by the most odious and unnatural of priestly restrictions.”[283] 

Monckton Milnes must have complained about Swinburne’s downward spiral to Isabel, who carefully cultivated him—“I don't like Swinburne for neglecting you … I abominate ingratitude”.[284]  But as Swinburne later wrote to Burton, he had tired of inoffense—“I got a pathetically pressing invitation to luncheon from our common Houghton.  I’m afraid the poor old Thermometer is getting very shaky—but the quicksilver though running low will keep time with the weather to the last.”[285] 

Alice “Lallah” Bird left a vivid description of an evening spent in 1878 in the company of the Burtons and Swinburne, at the Welbeck Street house she shared with her brother Dr. George Bird.  By then Swinburne was in the closing stages of the alcoholism that he would soon be rescued from by Theodore Watts Dunton, by force—“He looked ill and worn, and older.  He had a haggard expression as if his nerves were out of tune.  He and Captain Burton were the chief talkers”.[286]  Dante Gabriel Rossetti had long given up on him.  In 1879 Watts-Dunton removed him to his house The Pines, to be kept on a short leash, prolonged but dampened.

Over the succeeding years there are occasional glints of Swinburne in the company of one or more of the Burtons.  Isabel lunched with him in March 1880, introducing him to Lynn Linton, and both Burtons dined with him in the company of the Birds in July 1882.  Swinburne later wrote admiringly of Burton’s translation of Camoens’ Lyricks (1884), which was dedicated to him, reciprocating Swinburne’s dedication of his Poems and Ballads Second Series (1878).  There was another reunion on Aug. 12, 1885, while the Burtons were in England to arrange the Nights, but that may have been their last meeting.

Swinburne publicly—very bitterly—fell out with Isabel after the death of Burton, specifically over the deathbed conversion act and the destruction of Burton’s manuscripts, attacking her in verse in his ‘Auvergne Elegy’ to Burton.[287]  His private sniping was salted with peculiarly old-fashioned anti-popery.  He wrote to Theodore Watts-Dunton in July 1891 of “Lady B. or her fellow-conspirators against a deathbed on behalf of the Oly Cartholic Church” and in November 1892 to their former lunch partner Lynn Linton, of “the popish mendacities of that poor liar Lady Burton … she has befouled Richard Burton’s memory like a harpy”.[288] 

But it was Swinburne who was Isabel’s “clever friend” who said that Burton projected the “jaw of a Devil and the brow of a God”.  And when Edmund Gosse contacted him about writing a precis of Burton’s life ten years after his death (possibly for the DNB) Swinburne could not imagine being that terse, but assured Gosse “from personal experience” that “no more delightful companion can be imagined, either in his most serious or his most humorous moods”.[289]

186.      Sykes, Colonel William Henry (1790-1872).

British Naturalist from Yorkshire, a founder member of the Royal Statistical Society and the Asiatic Society of Bombay, and a Fellow of the Royal Society.  He was a Bombay Army officer, having joined the East India Company in 1803.  He rose to the Board of the Company in 1840, becoming Vice Chairman in 1855 and Chairman in 1856.  Burton dedicated Volume 1 of his Pilgrimage to Sykes.  Isabel describes him as an early friend of RFB, and he was an influential early supporter of Burton’s expeditions to Arabia and to Africa, although in 1853 Sykes supposedly “sharply rebuked him with printing a book that would do far more harm than good”[290]A Complete System of Bayonet Exercise (1853), whose contents seem wholly uninteresting now.   Sykes, his thermometers and his statistics are mentioned several times by Burton in Lake Regions and Zanzibar, even popping up again in the Nights—“We are not told that the Prince was thereby salivated like the late Colonel Sykes when boiling his mercury for thermometric experiments”.[291]  After retiring from the Company Board in 1857 Sykes became a Liberal Member of Parliament for Aberdeen until his death in 1872, but kept up his scientific involvement—he was with Burton and Speke at Bath for the British Association of 1864.  He was the author of a number of papers and books, including Notes on the Religious, Moral and Political State of Ancient India (1841).

187.      Thorndike, Rev. Charles Faunce (1821-1915).

“On the 12th of August arrived our new Consular Chaplain (the Rev. Mr. Thorndike), a charming, gentlemanly, and devout man, who had been in the army.”[292]  Retired from Trieste in 1905 and became Chaplain at Fiume.  He left an admiring reminiscence of Burton for Chamber’s Journal (see Volume 3)—“ ‘Do you know, you are the only padre Richard has ever taken to,’ said Lady Burton to me as I sat by her side at dinner.”  Oddly, Thorndike make no mention of Burton in his slim booklet of memoirs Some Memories of Ninety Years.  The recollections of Charles Faunce Thorndike of Trieste, gunner and priest.  (William Clowes: Canterbury, 1912).[293]  Thorndike started his career in the Royal Artillery, and retired to the Villa Freeland, Trieste.

188.      Tinsley, William (1831-1902).

An English publisher born at South Mimms in Hertfordshire, the self-educated son of an illiterate gamekeeper who had married the daughter of a veterinarian.  After following his brother Edward to London in 1852 to work on the railways, the two soon quit their regular jobs to found their own publishing firm ‘Tinsley Brothers’ in 1854—“Later on Tinsley's health was drunk, and he replied in characteristic fashion, detailing among other things his first arrival in the great metropolis on the top of a haycart, with the traditional three half-pence in his pocket.”[294]  Eventually the Tinsley authors ranged from Ouida to Wilkie Collins, Thomas Hardy, G. A. Henty and Richard Burton.  Edward died of a stroke in 1866, but William continued on, founding Tinsley’s Magazine the following year.  The magazine made no money, the books sold inconsistently, and the firm was driven to bankruptcy in the late 1880s. 

Tinsley’s memoirs Random Recollections of an old Publisher contain a substantial section on Burton (see Volume 3), since Tinsley had published most of Burton’s output from the 1860s, including all his travel writing: Abeokuta and the Camaroons Mountains (1863), Wanderings in West Africa (1863), A Mission to Gelele (1864), The Nile Basin (1864), Wit and Wisdom from West Africa (1865), Explorations of The Highlands of the Brazil (1869), Letters from the Battlefields of Paraguay (1870),  Unexplored Syria (1872) and finally Zanzibar; City, Island, and Coast (1872).  It was an uneasy relationship, as the following remark, from a letter Burton wrote to his Brazil-based friend Albert Tootal, shows—“I want the stupid editor Tinsley to get up a S. American clientèle, but like other Britishers he is too slow.  They will probably not translate my ‘Highlands of the B.’, but if that is done I should like to correct the copy & to cut out about half, in fact all that suits only Britishers.”[295]

None of his Burton titles, according to Tinsley, made much money, but their sales were persistent and perennial.  He had a poor opinion of the Arabian Nights and the Erotica of the later years—“it seems hard to believe that any truly noble-minded man or woman could, or would, lend their name to literature full of innuendo, if not worse matter.” 

189.      Tootal, Albert (1838?-1893).

A clerk in Rio de Janeiro who eventually rose to head the Brazilian branch of the firm John Bradshaw & Co.  The Burtons met him when they were stationed at Santos in the late 1860s, and a number of important letters between both of the Burtons and Tootal survive—see Volume 2.  Tootal was fluent in German and collaborated with Burton in producing the first translation into English of The Captivity of Hans Stade of Hesse (London: Hakluyt Society, 1874), a memoir of South American cannibalism which Tootal translated and Burton annotated—to which he added a long description of his own travels in the area associated with Hans Stade, amounting to a third of the whole book. 

Tootal was a member of the Anthropological Society, which he joined in 1867 as a result of Burton’s encouragement.  After Hans Stade, Burton urged him to keep on: “hundreds of business men (e.g. John Lubbock) find time for study, and change of occupation [to] an active mind like yours is the best of rest.  Why should you not go in regularly for anthropology, get all the books from Wilson downwards and read them carefully making notes in the margin?  A couple of hours a day (regular) soon makes a giant hole in a subject.  Your translation of Hans Stade will be noticed vy favourably and your name will have made its first appearance in public.  The anthropology of the Brazil requires a completely modern treatment and you have not a soul as rival.”[296]  Tootal, who shared Isabel’s interests in music and was a founder of the ‘Club Beethoven’ in Rio, does not appear to have acted on this advice.  He died in 1893 in Hampstead at age 55, ‘after a few hours illness’.[297]

190.      Tussaud, John Theodore (1858-1943).

A member of the “Madame Tussaud” waxworks dynasty.  He was brought into the business at a young age and later became the chief modeller. After Burton’s death, he had duly received his place in Tussaud’s collection by 1894, apparently with the help of Isabel—“his handsome and stately widow”, who said that though she “gave them the real clothes and the real weapons, and dressed him myself” she nevertheless “always had a trouble with Tussaud about a certain stoop which he declares is artistic, and which I say was not natural to him.”[298] Although the reliability of his memoirs has been questioned,[299] Tussaud left an admiring reminiscence of Isabel that appears in Volume 3.

Figure 33.  The Burton Exhibit at Madame Tussaud’s.

Title: plate

191.      Vámbéry, Ármin (1832-1913).

A Jewish-Hungarian traveller, author, linguist and orientalist.  He was born in Hungary and educated in Vienna and Budapest, showing marked linguistic abilities.  After a stint as an Ottoman official in the late 1850s, he travelled, disguised as a Dervish, through Central Asia to Samarkand, from 1861 to 1864.  This trip is described in his Travels in Central Asia (1865).  He was later appointed to a professorship at the University of Budapest. 

In 1864, after his travels as a dervish, Vámbéry met Burton at Fryston, the Yorkshire estate of Monckton Milnes, a scene he described fondly in his memoirs.[300]  Later he also attended the fateful meeting of the British Association at Bath in September 1864—“At the request of the President,[301] M. Vambery convulsed the audience by pronouncing the Mahomadan blessing, which as a holy beggar pilgrim he was constantly called upon to utter.”[302]  The affection between the two was qualified in later years, since Burton did not approve of Vámbéry’s supposed Turcophilia—“You will therefore regard M. Vambery’s opinions upon the subject of Turkey with suspicion, and reserve all your respect for his invaluable publications upon the Turanian dialects, his specialite.”[303]

192.      Viator.

Pseudonym of Richard Burton e.g. in letters of 1848 to the Bombay Times about the language examination system in India—see Volume 1.  Others were known to use the pseudonym too over the years, but it is certain the Burton used it again himself.  Burton is known to have published letters and articles under many other pseudonyms, in the Daily News and other papers.

193.      Villiers, Frederick (1851-1922).

British newspaper correspondent and war illustrator, born in London but educated in France.  He reported for the Graphic and the Illustrated London News, and produced several books of memoirs based on his first-hand experience of the minor wars of the late Victorian Era—he is said to have covered 21 campaigns in total.  He may have been the first war correspondent to use a film camera on a battlefield, during the Sudan Campaign of 1897.  He met Burton in Cairo in 1880 and left a reminiscence—“ ‘Excuse me!’ I said, ‘but are you not the Consul of Trieste?’ ”.[304]

194.      Vizetelly, Henry Richard (1820-1894).

A London journalist, author and publisher whose firm Vizetelly and Company brought out English translations of Emile Zola’s novels, including La Terre (The Earth, 1887) in 1888.  When prosecuted by the National Vigilance Association for obscenity, he eventually pleaded guilty and was convicted and fined 100 pounds.  The court did not accept his argument that the translations had been expurgated.  See the detailed description of the trial by Ernest Alfred Vizetelly Émile Zola, Novelist and Reformer: An Account of His Life & Work (London: John Lane, 1904).  Vizetelly knew Burton from the 1860s and left a reminiscence of him.[305]  Burton made frequent references to Vizetelly in his correspondence with Leonard Smithers, as Vizetelly’s legal difficulties, over obscenity, coincided with their own collaboration, which ran similar risks.

195.      Whistler, James McNeill (1834-1903).

American-born painter and wit living in England.  He was a friend of Swinburne, through whom he may have met Burton, possibly as early as 1869.  Isabel also recalled running into him in Italy towards the end of 1879—“we went off to Chioggia, the fishing village near Venice, and we had the pleasure of unearthing Mr. Jemmy Whistler and Dr. George Bird.  Mr. Whistler was a great find for us.”[306]  They met up again in the 1880s through Luke Ionides—see the anecdote in Volume 3.  Whistler was also connected to Burton through the Oscar Wilde set, which circulated through his Tite Street house.  This is confirmed by a brief note by Burton, written from the Athenaeum Club, to Whistler, which is still extant: “Last Sunday I drove in hurried and pleasurable anticipation to Tite St. Chelsea … Where and when can I see you?”.[307]

196.      Wilson, Charles Rivers (1831-1916).

An English civil servant and financier, born in London and educated at Eton and Oxford.  He was a Director of the Suez Canal Company, and met the Burtons briefly in the late 1870s—“He is less a ruffian than I expected, but it is true, as Vivian[308] says, that he has a hard and cruel face, and Mrs. Vivian says he frightens her.  Mrs. Burton is what you might expect from her book, rather a gusher”.[309]  Isabel hoped at the time they met to involve him in her campaign against cruelty to animals.[310]

197.      Wilson, Frank.

Burton’s vice-consul at Fernando Po, possibly of Scottish descent, though very little is known for sure about him.  They were already friends when Burton got him the job, perhaps having met in London.  Wilson was temporary Consul after Burton’s departure, before Charles Livingstone got the job in 1865, and intermittently after that till at least 1874. When the missionary Henry Roe arrived on Fernando Po in 1870, Wilson was there to greet him.[311]  In 1866 Wilson’s address at the Anthropological Society was “41 Arlington Street, Glasgow and Fernando Po” and he appears to have been there till 1870.  One source describes his career as “very short and inglorious”, due to his “having fallen victim to the temptations of the climate”[312] but this appears to be a mistake—extant correspondence with Burton shows that he returned to London and went to work for the Education Department in Whitehall, at the very least between 1875 and 1880, and married, living at one time in South Hackney, London.  He took a leave of absence from the Education Department in 1880 to pursue a mining venture in Sierra Leone.[313]  Burton and Wilson kept up a lively correspondence, which appears in Volume 1 and Volume 2.

198.      Wood, Sir Charles (1800–1885).

A British Member of Parliament for the Liberal Party and Cabinet Minister, educated at Eton and Oxford.  He was Chancellor of the Exchequer in Lord John Russell’s government between 1846 and 1852, and later Secretary of State for India under Palmerston between 1859 and 1866.  It was in the latter capacity that Burton came into direct contact with him, as the complaint made in 1859 by C. P. Rigby, concerning the unpaid porters of the East Africa Expedition, came to Wood’s attention—“Sir Charles Wood especially desires to be informed why you took no steps to bring the services of the men who accompanied you, and your obligations to them, to the notice of the Bombay Government”.[314]  It was Wood who ultimately censured Burton as a result of this complaint.  Moreover, Isabel attributed Burton’s “coming under the reduction” in 1861, when he was retrenched from the Army, to Wood—“In 1861 [Burton] was compelled to leave, without pay or pension, by Sir Charles Wood, for accepting the Consulship of Fernando Po.”[315]  Unsurprisingly, Burton referred to him as the “unlearned Sir Charles Wood” in Sind Revisited.[316]

199.      Wright, William [Salih] (1837-1899).

An Irish Presbyterian missionary and author from County Down in Northern Ireland, educated at Queen’s College in Belfast.  He was influenced by the preacher Spurgeon to become a missionary.  Wright spent ten years as a missionary at Damascus, where he met the Burtons when they were stationed there between 1869 and 1871.  He returned to England in 1875.  Under the pseudonym ‘Salih’ he wrote a lengthy and highly affectionate reminiscence of Burton at Damascus—“He was always saying things to frighten old women of both sexes, and to make servant-maids stare”[317]  When Burton was recalled from Damascus, Wright was one of many Damascus associates who wrote a testimonial in his defense, which was submitted to the Foreign Office.

Wright also published books on The Empire of the Hittites (1884), The Brontes in Ireland (1893) and Account of Palmyra and Zenobia, with Travels and Adventures in Bashan and the Desert (1895).  The latter book described an exploration of Palmyra that was suggested to him by Burton, whose own exploration of the ruins was published in Unexplored Syria (1872)—“Sir Richard Burton, who had visited the ruins before me, urged me to take ladders and ropes and grappling-irons, for the ascent of the towers, which he had been unable to examine for lack of such appliances.”[318]

200.      Wylde, William Henry (1819-1909).

A civil servant in the Foreign Office, the eldest son of Major-General William Wylde of Chiswick (1788-1877).  He was educated at a private school, then served for a while as private secretary to his father, before entering the Civil Service in 1838.  He was the Superintendent of the Commercial, Consular, and Slave Trade Department of the Foreign Office between 1869 and 1880.  In 1872 he was on the Commission of Inquiry into Consular Establishments. 

Burton knew both William Henry and his father, as well as William Henry’s sons Everard William (1847-1911) and Augustus[319] Blandy (1849?-1909), who were in the Foreign Office and Consular service respectively.  He maintained an active correspondence with Wylde, who was in the Foreign Office and actively involved with West African Affairs when Burton was stationed at Fernando Po.  They were both members of the Athenaeum Club, and Wylde was also a Fellow of the RGS.  A decent portion of their correspondence survives and appears in Volumes 1 and 2.


 


Sources.

Archives.

Manuscript-derived material from the following archives and libraries appears in this collection.

Boston Athenaeum, Boston, USA.

 

British Library, London, UK.

Rare Books and Manuscripts
India Office Records

Durham University, Durham, UK.

Wylde Papers

Huntington Library, San Marino, California, USA.

Sir Richard Francis Burton Papers.
Sir Richard Burton Manuscripts Collection.
Burke E. Casari Collection.
Burton-Smithers Papers.
Rare Books (Burton’s Personal Library).

Kew Gardens, London.

Correspondence Collection.

National Archives, Kew, UK.

Foreign Office Records (FO).
Military Records (MIL).

National Library of Scotland, Edinburgh, UK.

Grant Papers.
Murray Papers.
Kirk Papers.

Orleans House Gallery, Richmond, UK.

Mary Lovell Collection.

Royal Anthropological Institute, London, UK.

Burton Collection.
Minutes.

Royal Asiatic Society, London, UK.

Burton Collection.

Royal Geographical Society, London, UK.

Correspondence Blocks CB4, CB5, CB6.
Burton Collection.
John Hanning Speke Collection.
George Back Collection.
Gordon Collection.
Spiro Collection.

Smithsonian Institute, Washington DC, USA.

Russell E. Train Africana Collection.

Cambridge University.

Trinity College, Houghton Papers.
Manuscripts and Archives, Robertson-Smith Papers.

University College London

Galton Papers.
Greenough Papers.

University of Texas at Austin

Harry Ransom Center.

Wiltshire and Swindon Record Office.

Arundell Family Collection.

Microfilms.

The papers of Sir Richard Burton (1821-1890) from the Wiltshire and Swindon Record Office (Colonial discourses., Series 2, Imperial adventurers and explorers, part 1.).  Marlborough: Adam Matthew, 2001.

Colonial discourses. Series two, Imperial adventurers and explorers. Part 2, Papers of James Augustus Grant (1827-92) and John Hanning Speke (1827-64) from the National Library of Scotland.  Marlborough, Wiltshire, England: Adam Matthew Publications, 2003.

Electronic Collections.

India, Raj and empire.  Marlborough, Wiltshire: Adam Matthew, 2013.

JSTOR Global Plants.  JSTOR.ORG

Bibliography.

Books by Richard Burton.

1851.

Goa, and the Blue Mountains; or Six Months of Sick Leave.  London, Richard Bentley.

1851.

Scinde; or, The Unhappy Valley (2 volumes).  London, Richard Bentley.

1851.

Sindh, and the Races that Inhabit the Valley of the Indus.  London, W. H. Allen.

1852.

Falconry in the Valley of the Indus.  London, John van Voorst.

1853.

A Complete System of Bayonet Exercise.  London, William Clowes.

1855-6.

Personal Narrative of a Pilgrimage to El-Medinah and Meccah (3 volumes).  London, Longman.

1856.

First Footsteps in East Africa; or, An exploration of Harar.  London, Longman.

1860.

The Lake Regions of Central Africa, A Picture of exploration (2 volumes).  London, Longman.

1861.

The City of the Saints and Across the Rocky Mountains to California. London, Longman.

1863.

(ed.) The Prairie Traveler, a Hand-book for Overland Expeditions by Randolph B. Marcy. London, Trubner.

1863.

Abeokuta and the Camaroons Mountains. An Exploration. (2 volumes) London, Tinsley.

1863.

Wanderings in West Africa, From Liverpool to Fernando Po. (Anon. by F.R.G.S.) (2 volumes) London, Tinsley.

1864.

A Mission to Gelele, King of Dahome (2 volumes).  London, Tinsley.

1864.

The Nile Basin. London, Tinsley.

1865.

Wit and Wisdom from West Africa.  London, Tinsley.

1865.

The Guide-book. A Pictorial Pilgrimage to Mecca and Medina. London, William Clowes.

1865.

Stone Talk.  London, Robert Hardwicke.

1869.

Explorations of The Highlands of the Brazil (2 volumes).  London, Tinsley.

1870.

Vikram and the Vampire, or Tales of Hindu Devilry.  London, Longman.

1870.

Letters from the Battlefields of Paraguay.  London, Tinsley.

1872.

Unexplored Syria (2 vols.)  London, Tinsley.

1872.

Zanzibar; City, Island, and Coast (2 volumes).  London, Tinsley.

1872.

The Case of Captain Burton, Late H. B. M.'s Consul at Damascus. Clayton & Co, London.

1873.

(transl.)  The Lands of Cazembe. Lacerda's Journey to Cazembe in 1798.  London, John Murray.

1874.

(ed.) The Captivity of Hans Stade of Hesse, in A.D. 1547-1555, Among the Wild Tribes of Eastern Brazil.  London, Hakluyt Society.

1875.

Ultima Thule; or A Summer in Iceland (2 volumes).  London, William P. Nimmo.

1876.

Etruscan Bologna: A Study.  London, Smith, Elder & Co.

1876.

A New System of Sword Exercise for Infantry.  London, William Clowes.

1876.

Two Trips to Gorilla Land and the Cataracts of the Congo (2 volumes).  London, Sampson Low.

1877.

Sind Revisited (2 volumes).  London, Richard Bentley.

1878.

The Gold-Mines of Midian and The Ruined Midianite Cities.  London, C. Kegan Paul.

1879.

The Land of Midian (revisited) (2 volumes).  London, C. Kegan Paul.

1880.

The Kasidah of Haji Abdu El-Yezdi a Lay of the Higher Law.  London, Bernard Quaritch.

1880.

(transl.) Os Lusiadas (The Lusiads) (2 volumes).  London, Bernard Quaritch.

1881.

Camoens: His Life and His Lusiads (2 volumes).  London, Bernard Quaritch.

1881.

A Glance at the "Passion-Play".  London, W. H. Harrison.

1883.

To the Gold Coast for Gold (2 volumes). London, Chatto & Windus.

1883.

(ed.) The Kama Sutra of Vatsyayana.  London, Kama Shastra Society.

1884.

(transl.) Camoens. The Lyricks (2 volumes).  London, Bernard Quaritch.

1884.

The Book of the Sword.  London, Chatto & Windus.

1885.

(ed.) Ananga Ranga.  Cosmopoli, Kama Shastra Society.

1885.

(transl. and ed.) A Plain and Literal Translation of the Arabian Nights' Entertainments (10 volumes).  Benares, Kama-Shastra Society.

1886-8.

(transl. and ed.) Supplemental Nights to the Book of The Thousand Nights and a Night (6 volumes).  Benares, Kama-Shastra Society

1886.

(transl.) Iracema, The Honey-lips and Manuel de Mores.  London, Bickers and Son.

1886.

(transl.) The Perfumed Garden of the Cheikh Nefzaoui.  London and Benares, Kama Shastra Society.

1887.

(ed.) The Beharistan (Abode of Spring).  London and Benares, Kama Shastra Society.

1888.

(ed.) The Gulistan or Rose Garden of Sa'di.  Benares, Kama Shastra Society.

1890

(transl.) Priapeia or the Sportive Epigrams of divers Poets on Priapus.  Cosmopoli.

1891.

(ed.) Marocco and the Moors. by Arthur Leared.  London, Sampson Low.

1893.

(transl.) Il Pentamerone; or, the Tale of Tales.  London, Henry and Co.

1894.

(transl.) The Carmina of Gaius Valerius Catullus.  London, Privately printed.

1898.

The Jew, The Gypsy, and El Islam.  Ed. W. H. Wilkins. London, Hutchinson.

1901.

Wanderings in Three Continents.  Ed. W. H. Wilkins. London, Hutchinson.

1911.

The Sentiment of the Sword: A Country-House Dialogue.  London, Horace Cox.

1982.

The Uruguay: A Historical Romance of South America.  Berkeley, University of California Press.

1990.

Sir Richard Burton's Travels in Arabia and Africa: Four Lectures from a Huntington Library Manuscript.  Edited by John Hayman.  Huntington Library Press.

2003.

(transl.) Pilpay's Fables.  Bangkok: Orchid Press, 2003.

Books by Isabel Burton.

1875.

The Inner Life of Syria, Palestine and the Holy Land.  London, Henry S. King.

1879.

A. E. I.: Arabia Egypt India. A Narrative of Travel.  London: William Mullan.  RFB is known to have contributed to this book.

1893.

The Life of Captain Sir Richard F. Burton K. C. M. G., F. R. G. S.  London, Chapman and Hall.

Auction Catalogues.

Spink and Son Ltd.  1976.  Sir Richard Burton KCMG 1821-1890.  Catalogue of valuable books, manuscripts & autographs letters of Sir Richard Francis Burton, 1821-1890: many recorded for the first time including a fine portrait in oils.  London.

Sothebys Sale, Fine Books and Manuscripts, #6515, 1993.  New York.

Maggs Bros. Ltd.  1996.  Sir Richard Burton.  Books from a Private Collection with Drawings & Related Material.  London.

Christies, London. 2004.  The Quentin Keynes Collection, Part I.  Important Travel Books and Manuscripts.

General.

Ashbee, H. S. as “Pisanus Fraxi’.

Index Librorum Prohibitorum.  London, 1877.

Centuria Librorum Absconditorum.  London, 1879.

Catena Librorum Tacendorum.  London, 1885.

Casada, James A.

1990.  Sir Richard F. Burton: a Biobibliographical Study.  London, Mansell.

Digby, Simon.

2006.  Richard Burton: the Indian Making of an Arabist.  Jersey, Orient Monographs.

Gibson, Ian. 

2001.  The Erotomaniac: the Secret Life of Henry Spencer Ashbee.  New York, Da Capo.

Godsall, Jon. 

2008.  The Tangled Web.  Leicester, Troubadour.

Hitchman, Francis

1887.  Richard F. Burton: K.C.M.G.  His Early, Private and Public Life.  2 volumes.  London, Sampson Low.

Jutzi, Alan H.

1993.  In Search of Sir Richard Burton: Papers from a Huntington Library Symposium.  San Marino, Huntington.

Keynes, Simon, ed. 

2004    Quentin Keynes: Explorer, film-maker, lecturer and book-collector, 1921-2003.  Cambridge, Privately Printed.

Kirkpatrick, B. J. 

1978.  A Catalogue of the Library of Sir Richard Burton, K.C.M.G. held by the Royal Anthropological Institute.  Royal Anthropological Institute.  This collection is now housed at the Huntington Library.

Lang, Cecil. 

1959.  The Swinburne Letters. 6 volumes.  New Haven, Yale.

Lovell, Mary. 

1998.  A Rage to Live. a Biography of Richard and Isabel Burton.  New York, Norton.

McCarthy, James.

2006.  Selim Aga: A Slave’s Odyssey.  Edinburgh, Luath Press.

McConnachie, James.

2007.  The Book of Love: the Story of the Kamasutra.  New York, Metropolitan Books.

McLynn, Frank

1991.  From the Sierras to the Pampas: Richard Burton’s Travels in the Americas 1860-69.  London, Century.

Mendes, Peter

1993.  Clandestine Erotic Fiction.  Aldershot, Scolar Press.

Maitland, Alexander. 

1973.  Speke and the Discovery of the Source of the Nile.  Newton Abbott, Victorian & Modern History Book Club.

Moore-Harell, Alice. 

2001.  Gordon and the Sudan: Prologue to the Mahdiyya, 1877-1880.  New York, Frank Cass [London: Routledge, 2014].

Myers, Terry L.

2004.  The Uncollected Letters of Algernon Charles Swinburne.  New York, Routledge.

Penzer, Norman. 

1923.  An Annotated Bibliography of Sir Richard Francis Burton K.C.M.G.  London, A.M. Philpot.

Rainy, William.

1865.  The Censor Censured, or the Calumnies of Captain Burton.  London, privately printed for the author by Geo. Chalfont.

Russell, Mrs. Charles E. B. 

1935.  General Rigby, Zanzibar and the Slave Trade with Journals, Dispatches etc.  London, George Allen & Unwin.  The author was Rigby’s daughter.

Simpson, Donald. 

1976.  Dark Companions: The African Contribution to the European Exploration of East Africa.  London, Paul Elek.

Stevenson, Richard. 

2015.  Beatson’s Mutiny: the Turbulent Career of a Victorian Soldier.  London, I. B. Tauris.

Stisted, Georgiana. 

1896.  The True Life of Captain Richard F. Burton.  London, H. S. Nichols.

Waterfield, Gordon.

1964.  First Footsteps in East Africa by Sir Richard Burton.  London, Praeger.  This contains a great deal of new material and commentary by Waterfield.

Wright, Thomas.

1906.  The Life of Sir Richard Burton.  2 vols. London, Everett.

Young, Donald. 

1979.  The Selected Correspondence of Sir Richard Burton 1848-1890.  MA Thesis.  Nebraska.

Young, Donald and Quentin Keynes. 

1999.  The search for the source of the Nile: correspondence between Captain Richard Burton, Captain John Speke and others, from Burton’s unpublished East African letter book; together with other related letters and papers in the collection of Quentin Keynes, esq.  London, Roxburghe Club.


Plates.


 

The East African Expedition.

Figure 34.  Zanzibar Town from the Sea.

Title: plate

Figure 35.  Fuga, sketched by Burton.

Title: plate

Figure 36.  Pangany Falls, sketched by Burton.

Title: plate

Figure 37.  Pemba Island, sketched by Burton.

Title: plate

Figure 38.  Mombas, sketched by Burton.

Title: plate

Figure 39.  Shamba, sketched by Burton.

Title: plate

Figure 40.  The Town of Wasim, sketched by Burton.

Title: plate

Figure 41.  Fort of Tongway, sketched by Burton.

Title: plate

Figure 42.  The Hills of Usumbara, sketched by Burton.

Title: plate

Figure 43.  East Coast Scene, sketched by Burton.

Title: plate

Figure 44.  A 'Savage of the Nyika', sketched by Burton.

Title: plate

Figure 45.  The Ivory Porter.

Title: plate

Figure 46.  Party of Wak'Hutu Women.

Title: plate

Figure 47.  The Wazaramo Tribe.[320]

Title: plate

Figure 48.  A Village in Khutu.  The Silk Cotton Tree.

Title: plate

Figure 49.  Sycamore in the Dhun of Ugogi.

Title: plate

Figure 50.  Explorers in East Africa.

Title: plate

Figure 51.  The East African Ghauts.

Title: plate

Figure 52.  Majiya W'heta, or the Jetting Fountain in K'hutu.

Title: plate

Figure 53.  Ugogo.

Title: plate

Figure 54.  Usagara Mountains, seen from Ugogo.

Title: plate

Figure 55.  View in Unyamwezi.

Title: plate

Figure 56.  Ladies' Smoking Party. [321]

Title: plate

Figure 57.  African House Building.

Title: plate

Figure 58.  A Village Interior in the Land of the Moon.  Utanta or Loom(l).  Iwanza, or public house (r).

Title: plate

Figure 59.  Navigation on the Tanganyika Lake.

Title: plate

Figure 60.  View in Usagara.

Title: plate

Figure 61.  My Tembe near the Tanganyika.

Title: plate

Figure 62.  Head Dresses of Wanyamwezi.

Title: plate

Figure 63.  African Types.

Title: plate

Title: plate

Figure 64.  Snay Bin Amir's House.

Title: plate

Figure 65.  Saydumi. a Native of Uganda.

Title: plate

Figure 66.  Mgongo Thembo, or the Elephant's Back.

Title: plate

Figure 67.  Jiwe la Mkoa, the Round Rock.

Title: plate

Figure 68.  The Basin of Maroro.

Title: plate

Figure 69.  The Basin of Kisanga.

Title: plate

Figure 70.  Rufita Pass in Usagara.

Title: plate

Figure 71.  The Ivory Porter, the Cloth Porter, and Woman, in Usagara.

Title: plate

Figure 72.  African Implements.

Title: plate

Figure 73.  Gourds.

Title: plate

Figure 74.  A Mnyamwezi (l).  A Mhela (r).

Title: plate

Figure 75.  The Bull-headed Mabruki (l).  African Standing Position (r).

Title: plate

Figure 76.  Elephant Rock.

Title: plate

Trieste.

Figure 77.  The Smoking Divan in Villa Gosleth, Trieste, by Albert Letchford.

Title: plate

Figure 78.  Room in Villa Gosleth, Trieste, by Albert Letchford.

Title: plate

Figure 79.  Isabel Burton’s Study in Villa Gosleth, by Albert Letchford.

Title: plate

Figure 80.  Isabel Burton’s Bedroom in Villa Gosleth, by Albert Letchford.

Title: plate

Figure 81.  View of the Bay of Trieste from Villa Gosleth, by Albert Letchford.

Title: plate

Figure 82.  Villa Gosleth, Trieste, scene by Albert Letchford.

Title: plate

Figure 83.  View from Villa Gosleth, Trieste, by Albert Letchford.

Title: plate

Figure 84.  View of the Bay of Trieste by Albert Letchford.

Title: plate

Figure 85.  Burton, Letchford, and Isabel in the Dining Room at Trieste.

Title: plate

Figure 86.  Alternative view of the dining room, with Burton, Letchford and Isabel.

Title: plate

Figure 87.  Drawing Room, Villa Gosleth, Trieste.

Title: plate

Title: plate

Figure 88.  The study, Villa Gosleth, Trieste.

Title: plate

Figure 89.  Villa Gosleth, Trieste, in the 1830s, from an old print.

Title: plate

Figure 90.  Burton in the 1880s.

Title: plate

Figure 91.  Portrait of Burton by Madame de Benvenuti, Trieste, 1879. [322]

Title: plate

 


Credits

Smithsonian:

Fuga, sketched by Burton.

Pangany Falls, sketched by Burton.

A 'Savage of the Nyika', sketched by Burton.

University of London, SOAS:

Portrait of Burton by Madame de Benvenuti, Trieste, 1879.

By kind permission of the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames, Orleans House Gallery:[323]

Cover: Burton at work in his study, by Albert Letchford.

The Smoking Divan in Villa Gosleth, Trieste, by Albert Letchford.

Room in Villa Gosleth, Trieste, by Albert Letchford.

Burton, Letchford, and Isabel in the Dining Room at Trieste.

Isabel Burton’s Study in Villa Gosleth, by Albert Letchford.

Isabel Burton’s Bedroom in Villa Gosleth, by Albert Letchford.

Villa Gosleth, Trieste, scene by Albert Letchford.

View from Villa Gosleth, Trieste, by Albert Letchford.

View of the Bay of Trieste, by Albert Letchford.

View of the Bay of Trieste by Albert Letchford.

Drawing Room, Villa Gosleth, Trieste.

Burton, Letchford, and Isabel in the Dining Room at Trieste.

Alternative view of the dining room, with Burton, Letchford and Isabel.

Burton in the 1880s.



[1] http://www.richmond.gov.uk/orleans_house_gallery.

[2] See William Taylor Four Years' Campaign in India (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1875) p. 128.

[3] See Volume 2.

[4] Isabel at one stage calls him “Frederick Foster Arbuthnot” (Life Vol. 2, p. 61) while even RFB calls him “Foster” in his dedication to Volume 3 of the Nights.

[5] Isabel Burton AEI (1879), p. 118.

[6] Wright (1906), RFB to John Payne, p. 219.  Arbuthnot also lived at 18, Park Lane, London.

[7] Ashbee, Catena Librorum Tacendorum, pp. 458-60.

[8] Burton’s annotated personal copies of Early Ideas, Arabic Authors and Persian Portraits survive in the collection now at the Huntington Library in the Rare Books Department.

[9] See Volume 3.

[10] Ian Gibson, The Erotomaniac: The Secret Life of Henry Spencer Ashbee, 2001.

[11] H. S. Ashbee, unpublished diary, quoted in Gibson (2001) p. 102.

[12] See Volume 3.

[13] Life Vol. 2, p. 329.

[14] 1888/11/14.  Richard Burton to Leonard Smithers.  See Volume 3.

[15] Academy Vol. XXXIII (1888-06-16), pp. 405-6

[16] London: Kegan Paul, 1878.

[17] London: Kegan Paul, 1893.

[18] Letters from Rio VIII (p. 168) Fraser’s Magazine, 1866.

[19] Anthropological Review, No. 20, Jan. 1868.

[20] Journal of the Royal Society of Arts February 12, 1875.

[21] 1862/05/25—see Volume 1.

[22] Zanzibar Vol. 1, p. 9.

[23] 1872/02/21.  George Percy Badger to Richard Burton.

[24] 1872/02/29.  George Percy Badger to Richard Burton.  This helps to explains Burton’s statement in the Nights Vol. 416 that “At Aden, where I passed the official examination, Captain (now Sir R. Lambert) Playfair and the late Rev. G. Percy Badger, to whom my papers were submitted, were pleased to report favourably of my proficiency.”  Burton believed that he had passed the examination in Aden and only the technicality raised by the Bombay committee, as to place of examination, led to the certification as interpreter not being granted, though he does not explicitly say this.

[25] Life Vol. 2, p. 162.

[26] Cambridge University Press, 1985, p. 220.

[27] See The National Archives COPY 1/440/277.

[28] Two Trips to Gorilla Land Vol. 2 (1876), p. 193.

[29] See The United States in the Middle East: a historical dictionary by David Shavit (New York: Greenwood Press, 1988) p. 27.

[30] According to Mendes (1993), he was educated at Oxford, graduating from St Mary Hall in 1863, but this is incorrect.  Alumni Oxiensis lists this Bellamy as Arthur, son of Edward, “gent. of Oxford.”

[31] Law Times, Sept. 14, 1889, p. 336.

[32] T. Skinner The stock exchange year-book for 1883, p. 153.

[33] The Stock Exchange Official Intelligence,1882, p. xliii.

[34] Hand-book guide to railway situations, 1862, p. 51.

[35] Richard Burton “Captain Burton and the Brothers Davenport” The Spiritual Magazine, February 1865, pp. 88-9.  Reproduced in Volume 1.

[36] For this and subsequent references to Ashbee’s unpublished diary, see Gibson (2001).

[37] Presumably Mrs. Sarah Potter, the flagellator brothel madam, who had died in 1872.

[38] Quoted in McConnachie (2007), p. 94.  No citation or source is given.

[39] Quoted in McConnachie (2007), p. 151.  No citation or source is given.

[40] Oxford, 2008, p. 44.

[41] See Volume 3.

[42] British Medical Journal May 19, 1900, p. 1266.  See also the obituary in the Lancet June 2, 1900, p. 1619 which has some variations of detail.

[43] ‘Mr. James Bird, bookseller, and extensively known as the amiable and gifted author of "The Vale of Sluughden,"—"Machin, or the Discovery of Madeira"—"Framingham,"—"Dunwich, a Tale of the Splendid City,"—"Cosmo, Duke of Tuscany, a Tragedy,"—"The Emigrant's Tale,"—"Francis Abbott," and various other works, died on the 26th of March, at the . village of Yoxford, in Suffolk, where he had been resident many years.  After a long illness, in which he evinced the utmost patience, and truly Christian resignation of spirit, he fell a victim to pulmonary disease in the 51st year of his age.  In the final hour he was soothed and blessed with the presence of his entire family—a bereaved wife, and twelve sons and daughters! No man was ever more beloved, or more deserving of love, than James Bird.  From the pen of one of his oldest and most attached literary friends, we shall, next month, present an extended memoir of him and of his works, biographical and critical.’  The Aldine Magazine Vol. 1 1839See also pp 297ff of the same journal for a very full account, and Selections from the poems of James Bird; with a brief Memoir of his life by Thomas Harral circa 1840.

[44] The history of co-operation Volume 2 by George Jacob Holyoake (1879) p. 151

[45] Romance of Isabel, Lady Burton Vol. 1 (1897), pp. 166-7.

[46] Anthony Blunt (1907-1983) the Cambridge Traitor was his grand-nephew.

[47] Remembered now for assisting Charles Babbage on his experiments in early computing devices.

[48] See Volume 2.

[49] Elizabeth Longford A Pilgrimage of Passion (1979; reprinted by I.B. Tauris in 2007) p. 131.

[50] E.g. Suppl. Vol. 3, p. viii.

[51] See Volume 1 for some examples.

[52] See Volume 2.

[53] The Case of Captain Burton (1872), p. 111.

[54] Wanderings in West Africa vol. 1, p. 175.

[55] See Cheltenham College Register, 1841-1889. (London: George Bell, 1890).

[56] See Volume 2.

[57] Letters from the Battlefields of Paraguay, p. 328.

[58] John Venn and J. A. Venn Alumni Cantabrigiensis (1921).

[59] On Nov 15 2015, this medal was auctioned by Lawrences Auctioneers of Crewkern.

[60] New Army List 1864.

[61] Life, vol. 1, p. 595.

[62] Son of the Rev. J. E. Burton, brother of Joseph Netterville Burton.

[63] Vol. 1, p. 82.

[64] Public Ledger and Daily Advertiser Saturday 04 March 1820, p. 4.  Also, Freeman's Journal Thursday 09 March 1820, where the church is noted.

[65] Morning Post Friday 03 March 1820 p. 4.  This is also stated by the New Monthly Magazine, Volume 13 (1820) p. 504.

[66] Godsall (2008).

[67] Stisted (1896), p. 4.  Godsall is probably justified in dismissing the often-repeated family legend that the retirement was due to exceptional chivalry on the part of Joseph Netterville toward Queen Caroline, at whose trial he supposedly refused to testify.

[68] Born in Feb. 1823 at “Barnham(sic) Wood” according to The European Magazine, and London Review, Volume 83 (Feb. 1823) p. 187.

[69] He may have been in the 35th Foot at this stage.

[70] The United Service Magazine, Volume 79, p. 323.  Godsall (2008) has the date as 1851 but that appears to be a mistake.  See also Bulletins and Other State Intelligence for the year 1855, Part 2 p. 2391.

[71] See Volume 3.

[72] See Volumes 2 and 3.

[73] See The National Cyclopaedia of American Biography Volume 10 by James Terry White, George Derby.

[74] See Volume 1.

[75] Nights Volume 6, p. 287.

[76] See Volume 1.

[77] Zanzibar Vol. 1, p. 9.

[78] Sic.  McLynn(1991), p. 114, incorrectly initials him “A. J.”

[79] 1874/03/02.  Richard Burton to Albert Tootal.

[80] Machado d’Oliveira, J. J. Geographia da provincia de S. Paulo ...[Sao Paulo, Typ. Imparcial de J. R. de A. Marques, 1862]. xiv, 122 pp. (A. T. Coimbra, Rio de Janeiro, n.d.).  See Kirkpatrick (1978), 1849.

[81] See Coke of Norfolk and his friends Volume 2 by Anna Stirling (John Lane: London, 1908), pp.  502-3. 

[82] See Volume 3.

[83] See Volume 3.

[84] See Volume 3.

[85] See for example 1864/10/12.  Richard Burton to Monckton Milnes.

[86] See Volume 3.

[87] See his obituary in Near East Vol. 13 (1917), p. 631.

[88] See Volume 2.

[89] See D. E. Rhodes Dennis of Etruria (London: Wolf, 1973) pp. 113-5.

[90] Vol 2, p. 75, 153.

[91] See Volume 1.

[92] See Volume 3.

[93] Vol. XXXIV (1888-07-28), pp. 47-8.

[94] 1861/08/28.  Richard Burton to Monckton Milnes.

[95] 1862/04/26.  Richard Burton to Monckton Milnes.

[96] See Volume 3.  Dunraven means Wilfrid Blunt.

[97] See Volume 3.

[98] See Volume 1.

[99] See Volume 1.

[100] The Case of Captain Burton (1872), p. 16.

[101] London, John Murray.

[102] Vol. 74 (2) April 1942 pp. 153-4.

[103] See First Footsteps, p. 114.

[104] Nov. 9, 1877.

[105] See Volume 3.

[106] 1885/01/12.  Isabel Burton to John Joseph Fahie.  See Volume 3.

[107] See Volume 1.

[108] Times 28 Dec. 1908, p. 9, col. C.

[109] See Volume 1.

[110] See Volume 2.

[111] See http://galton.org.

[112] See Pat Lovett Journalism in India (Calcutta: Banna, circa 1929).

[113] Wanderings in Three Continents, pp. 203-4.

[114] 1890/06/26.  James Augustus Grant to Sir Samuel Baker.  See Volume 3.

[115] See Volume 2.

[116] See Harvard College Class of 1892 secretary's report, Issue 4 (1907).

[117] See Volume 1.

[118] Bombay Secret Proceedings 135, 1840/05/20.  See Brian Marshall ‘Atkins Hamerton’ New Arabian Studies, Volume 2 (New Exeter Press, 1994), p. 26.

[119] Edouard Loarer ‘Notes on Zanguebar’ Madras Journal of Literature and Science, Volume 6 (1861), p. 91.

[120] Zanzibar, vol. 1, p. 35.

[121] Denis Bingham Recollections of Paris Vol. 2 (London: Chapman and Hall, 1896), pp. 253-4.

[122] See P.C. Finney, 'Abbe James Hamilton: antiquary, patron of the arts, Victorian Anglo-Catholic', in C. Entwistle (ed.), Through a Glass Brightly: Studies in Byzantine and Medieval Art and Archaeology presented to David Buckton (Oxford, 2003).

[123] See also Patrick Kearney ‘Biographical Sketch of Frederick Hankey (1821-1882)’ Scissors and Paste Biographies, June 2016.

[124] Gentleman’s Magazine, 1855.  She was a Catterina Valarmo (?-1835), sometimes given as ‘Vaslamo’ or ‘Varlamo’.  They were married in January 1819 in the Palace of Corfu.

[125] At that stage his address was Lower Berkeley Street, Portman Square.

[126] See also Ce n'est pas mon genre de livres lestes... : lettres inédites à Richard Monckton Milnes, Lord Houghton (1857-1865) / Frederick Hankey ; édition établie, présentée et annotée par Jacques Duprilot et Jean-Paul Goujon.  Miss Jenkins, 2012.

[127] James Pope-Hennessy Monckton Milnes: the Flight of Youth (New York: Farrar, 1851) p. 119. 

[128] Augustus Frederick Glossop Harris (1825–1873) who lived at what was then 9 Pelham Place, Brompton, from 1852–63, and had once been imprisoned for bankruptcy.

[129] Pisanus Fraxi [H. S. Ashbee] Catena Librorum Tacendorum, pp. L ff.  The confusing overly-footnoted and pedantic format used by Ashbee has been reformatted and rearranged here for clarity.  Oddly, Pope-Hennessy is uncertain about the date of Hankey’s death, even though it is clearly stated in Ashbee’s book, which he refers to and quotes in part.

[130] M. Octave Uzanne.

[131]. “Notre ami Hankey est mort subitement devant moi jeudi dernier, il avait commencé à se soigner. Il ne pensait pas sa mort si prochaine et il ne la craignait pas. ïl a été suffoqué, sans avoir éprouvé de douleur apparente. Nous étions très liés ensemble depuis 30 ans, il était un de mes meilleurs amis. Il a été enterré samedi dernier au cimetière du Père Lachaise.”

[132] James Pope-Hennessy Monckton Milnes: the Flight of Youth (New York: Farrar, 1851) pp. 119-120.  The diary has never been published.

[133] Goncourt Journal.  April 7 1862.  pp. 26-29.  The translation is rough and loose, as the published English edition does not include this entry.

[134] Revealing an obvious joke.

[135] A most unlikely story.

[136] Dr. Heinrich Barth, a confusion made by the Goncourts, since Hankey had asked Burton to do this and Barth was not in Africa then.

[137] A woodcut by Lucas Cranach the Elder (1472–1553), “The Werewolf or the Cannibal”.

[138] Here the Goncourts appear to have indulged in a philosophical rumination.

[139] You know where.

[140]  Felix Whitehurst’s My Private Diary during the Siege of Paris (1875) pp. 174, 268.

[141] Life, Vol. 2 p. 135.

[142] Life, Vol. 2, p. 148.

[143] Hodgson’s full military record: Ens. 30 Dec. 19; Lt. 3 Feb. 25; Capt. 30 Dec. 26; Major, 28 Dec. 38; Lt. Colonel 8 Aug. 45; Colonel, 20 June 54; Major General, 11 April 60; Lieut. General,29 Aug. 68; General, 2 Feb. 76; Colonel 4th Foot, 21 Nov, 76.

[144] The Christian Remembrancer 1839: 74.

[145] Lady Chichester, Caroline, daughter of Thomas Thistlethwayte, of Southwick Park, Hants. Married, first. 1838, Sir John Palmer Bruce Chichester, first baronet; and second, 1853, Colonel Studholme John Hodgson.  Died in 1897.  (Annual Register, 1897)

[146] See Volume 1, Hodgson to Milnes, 1855/—/—.

[147] Burton claimed to have lost a great number of “Eastern manuscripts” (i.e. erotica) he had stored at Grindlay’s warehouse, in a fire in the early 1860s.  Though Isabel later tried to show him shrugging his shoulders at this loss (she reports him saying “Well, it is a great bore, but I dare say that the world will be none the worse for some of those manuscripts having been burnt”), Hitchman has him furious instead, which was probably closer to the truth.  It seems that Grindlay performed this service for many in the Indian army.  The company was located at 54 Parliament Street SW1.  Ironically, the Grindlay company sold fire insurance.  According to Francis Hitchman, Richard F. Burton Volume 2  (London: Sampson Low, 1887) p. 448., “Burton's connection with Sind ended unhappily.  At the sale of the Amir's Library in which the most valuable MSS. went for a song, he had bought a large stock and expended not a little time and study in preparing them for translation; but when setting out for Salt Lake City in 1860 he confided them to his then agents, Messrs.  Grindlay and Co., who charged him with warehouse dues, but most improperly forgot to warn him that the goods that were warehoused were not insured.  The result was a fire, which destroyed the labours and collections and costumes of nineteen years.  The house was insured, but he never got any redress.  One of the silly employes, seeing disgust strongly marked on his face, asked him fatuously if he had lost any plate—the only object of value he could imagine.”  This fire is mentioned in Punjab Record, Volume 8 Part 1 (WE Ball: 1873) p. 183.  Civil Judgment in the case of Smallpage, November 1873. 

[148] Mendes (1993) p. 11.

[149] Life Vol. 2: p. 404.

[150] Aldershot: Scolar Press, 1993.

[151] James McConnachie The Book of Love: p. 89.

[152] Ian Gibson The Erotomaniac: p. 66.

[153] Pisanus Fraxi [H. S. Ashbee].  Catena Librorum Tacendorum.

[154] Isabel Burton, AEI, p. 144.

[155] Kirkpatrick (1978), 1604.

[156] Life Vol. 2, p. 362.

[157] Wright Vol. 2 (1906), pp 79-80.

[158] pp. 6, 17.

[159] The Missionary Herald at Home and Abroad, Volume 66 (1870), p. 219.

[160] Boase Modern English Biography 1898.

[161] Wanderings in Three Continents (1901), p. 11.

[162] Pilgrimage Vol. 1, p. 19.

[163] The Gentleman's Magazine, Volume 220 (1866), p. 929.

[164] May 23, 1891, p. 653.

[165] Godsall (2008) insists on truncating his name to “Laughlan”, and proposes to correct Burton’s own spelling of it, a mistake copied by Newman (2011), but his name was certainly Laughland with a ‘d’, as the Foreign Office documents in the National Archive show (FO 84/1147), and that is also how Burton always referred to him in his correspondence (see Volume 1)
.

[166] A notarized copy of the bill of sale is in the National Archives records (FO 97-438).  Both Mary Lovell (1998) and James Newman (2011) state that the signature on the document is not in Burton’s hand, but it is not the original document, so that is a non sequitur.  It is also not the case, contrary to Lovell, that Burton claimed to have simply deputized the sale to Laughland and therefore was not involved in it.  His submissions to the F. O. show that he was directly involved in it, and that the part played by Laughland was as buyer, not seller.

[167] The complete list of expenses is given in Rainy (1865)

[168] Life, Vol. 1, p. 596.

[169] E. Staley Lord Leighton of Stretton (London: Walter Scott, 1906) pp. 106-7.

[170] Volume 1 (Chapman and Hall: London, 1877).

[171] Trading Life in Western and Central Africa (Porcupine: Liverpool, 1877), pp. 309-10.  See also Cecil Holt ‘A Note on the John Holt Archives’ in Journal of the Historical Society of Nigeria Vol. 1, 1957, pp. 154-5.

[172] pp. 148,155,166,169,182.

[173] Vol. 2, p. 148.  His name is given there as Edward L. McCarthy, a mistake copied by Kirkpatrick (1978) and others.

[174] Burton to Monckton Milnes 1860/01/22 (see Volume 1).

[175] Isabel Burton ‘Lord Houghton at Fryston Hall.’  Celebrities at Home Series 2 (London: Office of ‘The World’, 1878).  Reprinted from The World (20 June, 1877).

[176] p. 405.

[177] Volume 5 (1885), p. 231.

[178] Life Vol. 1, p. 470.

[179] Romance, Vol. 2 p. 468.

[180] Life, Vol. 2, p. 391.

[181] Vol. 2, pp. 293, 306.

[182] Nigel Nicolson Portrait of a Marriage (1973).

[183] Dictionary of National Biography.

[184] Zanzibar Vol. 2, p. 380.

[185] Life Vol. 1, p. 501.

[186] Kirkpatrick, 1878: 1915, 2043.

[187] Memorials of foreign missionaries of the Presbyterian church, U. S. A. by William Rankin (Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. Board of Publication, 1895) pp.  264-9.

[188] The same Wright who had previously written a biography of Burton, see Wright 1906.

[189] DNB.

[190] Ultima Thule Vol. 1, p. 245.  Nights Vol. 7, p. 156.

[191] See DNB.

[192] Mr. Disraeli, Colonel Rathborne and the Council of India (1860), pp. 8-10.

[193] Isabel Burton Life, Vol. 1, p. 145.  The letters from Rathborne actually appeared in The Bombay Gentleman’s Gazette and Commercial Advertiser of 1845.

[194] There is also a letter from Rathborne to Burton in Life, Vol 2, p. 245.

[195] Life Vol. 2, p. 44.

[196] See for example Mission to Gelele Vol. 1, p. 22, where Burton refers to Reade as “the author of an amusing and picturesque book”, suggesting that they had not yet met.  Reade reviewed Mission to Gelele very positively for the Anthropological Review Vol. 2 No 7 (Nov. 1864), pp. 335-343.

[197] Reade, Savage Africa (1864) p. 66.

[198] Kirkpatrick (1978): 1664, 295.

[199] Church Missionary Intelligencer, May 1849, p. 17.

[200] 1857/04/09, Burton to Back—see Volume 1.

[201] 1859/03/21.  Johannes Rebmann to Richard Burton—see Volume 1.

[202] Ernest Rhys Everyman Remembers (New York: Cosmopolitan, 1931) pp 196-7.

[203] See Trevor R. Shaw Foreign travellers in the Slovene Karst: 1486-1900 (ZRC, 2008): p. 267.

[204] Alnwick Mercury, Saturday 03 March 1883, p. 3.  “Dr. de Ricci in his admirable book, "Rambles Istria," &c, 1875”.

[205] June 1843, p. 643.  Lady Jane was a daughter of Robert King, the 2nd Earl of Kingston, and had previously married Count de Winzengerode.

[206] Kirkpatrick (1978): 2107.

[207] Alfred Bate Richards A sketch of the career of Richard F. Burton (1880 / 1886) pp. 2-3.

[208] F. Hitchman Richard F. Burton (1887) p. 87.

[209] Suppl. Nights, Vol. 6., p. 398.

[210] Raymond Howell The Royal Navy and the Slave Trade, p. 33.  Howell cites records of the court-martial in the National Archives, ADM 1/5808.  There is no mention of this intriguing dispute in the memoir by Rigby’s daughter, General Rigby (1931).

[211] Transactions of the Bombay Asiatic Society IX (May 1949 to August 1850), p. 129.

[212] First Footsteps in East Africa Vol. 2, p. 153.

[213] 1858/06/24.  Burton to Norton Shaw.

[214] Lake Regions, p. 77.

[215] Lake Regions, p. 361.

[216] Lyne, 1905: 53.

[217] Nwulia, 1975: 69.

[218] General Rigby, p. 247.

[219] Lake Regions, pp. 523-4.

[220] 1860/01/16, Burton to Rigby—see Volume 1.

[221] Life Vol. 1, p. 389.  By “barren” Burton meant that Grant was not permitted to see the falls where the Nile flowed out of the Victoria Nyanza.

[222] Murchison.

[223] 1864/11/06, Rigby to Grant—see Volume 1.

[224] January 1865, Rigby to Grant.  Extract in the Mary Lovell Collection, Orleans House, stated to be from the original letter in the National Library of Scotland.

[225] Edinburgh Review Oct. 1893, p. 459.

[226] Zanzibar, pp. 332-3.

[227] See CP Rigby Political Dispatch 43 of 1860, Transactions of the Bombay Geographical Society Vol. 16 (1863), p. xlvi ff.

[228] Dante Gabriel Rossetti.

[229] Camoens: the Lyricks, p. 2.

[230] Life Vol. 1, p. 231.

[231] Punch Feb 21, 1863, p. 74.  “Rome and Russell”.

[232] 1861/10/01.  Richard Burton to William Henry Wylde—see Volume 1.

[233] Kirkpatrick (1978), 1668.

[234] Camoens: Life and Lusiads, vol. 1 p. 186.

[235] Nights Vol.4, p. 57.

[236] Volume 39 (1869), p. cxlviii.

[237] Karl Pearson Papers relating to his Life Letters and Labours of Francis Galton, UCL.  Communication from the RGS.

[238] Possibly Charles Percy Bushe, who later met Burton in Paraguay.

[239] See Amelia Ransome Neville The Fantastic City: Memoirs of the Social and Romantic Life of Old San Francisco (1935).  She called him “Sir Edward Shelley”.

[240] Authorhouse, 2005.

[241] Michael Bird Samuel Shepheard of Cairo (London: Michael Joseph, 1957).

[242] Life Vol. 1, p. 239.

[243] “How to deal with the Slave Scandal in Egypt,” reprinted in Life Vol. 2, p. 197.

[244] See for example, Allen’s Indian Mail p. 415, who note a leave of absence to Simla for April 25 to July 25, 1851.  Speke’s MS map of Tibet is in the Grant Papers in the National Library of Scotland.

[245] Allen’s Indian Mail Vol. XIII 1855, p. 64.

[246] What Led to the Discovery of the Source of the Nile (1864), p. 149.

[247] Called “Kazeh” by both men, but Taborah by all others.

[248] 1859/04/19.  Richard Burton to RGS.

[249] A few privately distributed copies of this book include an additional “tail” in which Speke floats a novel theory about Burton’s stopover at Aden after the end of East African expedition.  Speke claims Burton told him he intended to go on to Jerusalem.  This is contradicted by Burton’s own letters to the RGS.

[250] Athenaeum Jan. 14 1865, p. 34.

[251] See also Stanley’s diary entries on Burton, held in the archives in Belgium cited in Tim Jeal, Stanley (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2008).  Early biographies of Stanley are grossly inaccurate, largely because of his own determination to obfuscate his origins.

[252] Sometimes spelled ‘Steinhaueser’ or ‘Steinhauser’ due to the umlaut.

[253] Nights Vol. 1, p. 9.

[254] Nights Vol. 1 p. xix.

[255] Zanzibar Vol. 1, pp. 14-15.

[256] Life Vol 1, p. 172.

[257] See also ‘Births and Deaths’ Pall Mall Gazette Saturday 04 August 1866, p. 6.

[258] Douglas Timins, preface to Stevenson A Traveller of the Sixties (London: Constable, 1929) pp. 76, 95.  Timins appears to be the only extant source of information about Stevenson, outside of the MS diaries.

[259] The novel sections of this reminiscence are included here by their date of occurrence.

[260] Athenaeum, May 1 1880, pp. 563-4.

[261] Spectator, Aug 14 1880, p. 1044.

[262] Bye-gones: relating to Wales and the border counties 1903-4 (London: Oswestry & Wrexham, 1905), p. 48. See also Thomas Wright’s The Life of Sir Richard Burton (London: Everett, 1906), p. 186.

[263] Life and Letters of Thomas Henry Huxley by Leonard Huxley (New York, Appleton, 1901) Vol. 1, p. 19.

[264] Later reissued as “Brief Notes Relative to the Division of Time, and Articles of Cultivation in Sind; to Which Are Appended Remarks on the Modes of Intoxication in That Province.”  Bombay Government Records.  New Series No. 17, Part 2, pp. 613-36.

[265] 1853/11/16.  Richard Burton to Norton Shaw.

[266] The Gentleman's Magazine and Historical Review July 1854, 401.

[267] See the entry for Vámbéry below.

[268] First Footsteps, p. xxiii.

[269] There is a cottage industry devoted to Swinburne’s poetry and general life, with 6 Volumes of Letters (Lang, 1956) and a further three of Uncollected Letters (Myers, 2004).

[270] 34 St Martin’s Street, on the corner of Orange.  Sometimes misspelled as ‘Bartolini’s’.  It was later pulled down.

[271] The Cannibal Catechism (London: Privately Printed, 1913).

[272] A drink made from rum, flavoured with sugar-water and nutmeg.

[273] Father of Orthodoxy, Contra Mundum, the 4th Century Bishop of Alexandria.

[274] A wand of giant fennel topped with a pinecone that was a symbol of hedonism.

[275] In me you see The Misfortunes of Virtue; in him the prosperity of Vice.

[276] To stand up to.

[277] Swinburne to Lord Houghton, Lang Vol. 1 (1959), pp. 124-5.

[278] Monckton Milnes, see Register.

[279] 1867/04/05.  Richard Burton to Algernon Swinburne.

[280] 1867/11/23 and 1868/04/18.  Isabel Burton to Monckton Milnes.

[281] 1869/09/01.  Richard Burton to Monckton Milnes.

[282] Lang Viol. II (1859), p. 135.  This undated note is tagged February 1871 by Lang but that is a mistake, since Burton was still in Damascus then.  It could only be 1872. 

[283] Lang Vol. III (1959), p. 61.

[284] 1874/08/12.  Isabel Burton to Monckton Milnes.

[285] 1884/11/27.  Algernon Swinburne to Richard Burton.

[286] See Volume 2.

[287] Fortnightly Review July, 1892.

[288] Lang Vol. VI (1859) pp. 10, 45.  July 23, 1891 and November 24, 1892.  Although Swinburne sent many presentation copies of his works to Burton, the only surviving volume in Burton’s personal library is Essays and Studies (1875).

[289] Lang Vol. VI (1959), p. 147.

[290] Life Vol. 1 p. 97.

[291] Nights Vol. 3, p. 344.

[292] Life Vol. 2, p. 253.  This was 1883.

[293] This is held by the British Library, shelf mark 4908.g.17.  15 pages.

[294] Henry Vizetelly Glances back through seventy years—see Volume 2.

[295] 1870/05/16.  Richard Burton to Albert Tootal.

[296] 1874/10/29.  Richard Burton to Albert Tootal.

[297] London Evening Standard, Tuesday 05 December 1893, p. 1.

[298] Wright Vol. 2 (1906), p 275.

[299] See Madame Tussaud: And the History of Waxworks by Pamela M. Pilbeam (Hambledon: London, 2003), p. 174.

[300] See Volume 1.

[301] Sir Roderick Murchison.

[302] The British Association at Bath, 1864. Authorised reprint of the reports in the special daily editions of the Bath Chronicle (1864), p. 238.

[303] AEI, p. 47.

[304] See Volume 3.

[305] See Volume 2.

[306] Life Vol. 2, p. 174.

[307] 30 July, probably 1885.  Whistler Correspondence, Glasgow.

[308] The British Consul General at Cairo.

[309] See Volume 2.  The book was Isabel’s Inner Life (1875).

[310] AEI (1879), p. 245.

[311] Henry Roe West African Scenes (1874), p. 32.

[312]  Harry Cotterel “Reminiscences of one connected with the West African Trade from 1863 to 1910” in Trading in West Africa, 1840-1920 ed. by Peter N. Davies (New York: Africana Publishing Company, 1976).  See also Noel Matthews A guide to manuscripts and documents in the British Isles relating to Africa (London: Oxford University Press, 1971) page 207.

[313] Huntington Library, RFB 1315-1318, letters from Frank Wilson to Richard F. Burton.

[314] Life, Vol. 2, p. 567.

[315] Life Vol. 2, p. 325.

[316] Vol. 1 (1877), p. 117.

[317] See Volume 2.

[318] Wright Account of Palmyra and Zenobia (1895), p. 74.

[319] To whom Isabel refers as ‘Gustavus’, for no clear reason.  Life Vol. 2, p. 55.

[320] “Their distinctive mark is the peculiarity of dressing their hair.  The thick wool is plastered over with a cap-like coating of ochreish and micaceous clay, brought from the hills, and mixed to the consistency of honey with the oil of the sesamum or the castor-bean. The pomatum, before drying, is pulled out with the fingers to the ends of many little twists, which circle the head horizontally, and the mass is separated into a single or a double line of knobs, the upper being above, and the lower below, the ears, both look stiff and matted, as if affected with a bad plica polonica.  The contrast between these garlands of small red dilberries and the glossy black skin is, however, effective.” Lake Regions Vol. 1, p. 108.

[321] “Every evening there is a smoking party, which particularly attracts my attention. All the feminine part of the population, from wrinkled grandmother to the maiden scarcely in her teens, assemble together … .  Amongst the fair of Yombo, there were no less than three beauties—women who would be deemed beautiful in any part of the world. Their faces were purely Grecian; they had laughing eyes, their figures were models for an artist … .”  Lake Regions Vol. 1, p. 388.

[322] “We had a most charming family of neighbours, who were some of our best friends in Trieste; they had a lovely property, an old castle called Weixelstein, near Steinbruck (Monsieur and Madame Gutmansthal de Benvenuti). He was a Trieste-Italian gentleman, and she was the daughter of a Russian, by an American wife, and is far away the most charming woman I know, and so clever.”—Isabel Burton. Life Vol.2 p. 168.

[323] http://www.richmond.gov.uk/orleans_house_gallery.